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Located on the eastern coast of South America, between Brazil and Argentina, Uruguay was first colonized by the Spanish in But resistance from local. Uruguay Profile: People, Government and Political Conditions, Economy, Foreign Uruguay's location between Argentina and Brazil makes close relations with . trade leads, free export counseling, help with the export process, and more. “Changing relationships in the health care context: the Uruguayan model for reducing the risk and harm of unsafe . the potential abortion takes place, counseling is provided and .. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala. Mexico.

During a November plebiscite, the military rejected a proposed new constitution. Soon afterwards, the military announced plans to return to civilian rule, and national elections were held in Throughout this administration, both economic and democratic reforms moved the country towards greater stability.

Uruguay country brief - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Sanguinetti also sought national reconciliation by offering general amnesty for military leaders, who had been accused of committing human rights violations under the military regime. Serving from toLacalle implemented major economic reforms and pursued further trade liberalizing policies.

In the elections, former President Sanguinetti returned to power, serving as president from until March No one party held a majority in the General Assembly, so the National Party joined with the Colorado Party to form a coalition government. This coalition was able to improve the electoral system, social security, education, and public safety within Uruguay. The national elections were held under a new electoral system, which was established by constitutional amendment.

Not a single candidate emerged with a clear victory. Nevertheless, his administration was able to increase trade and attract foreign investment. Over the past few years, the National and Colorado Parties have declined in membership and voting. A year later, Brazilians attacked Montevideo from the north, but Artigas led a revolutionary movement against them.

The struggle continued from towhen the Portuguese captured Montevideo and Artigas had to flee to Paraguay. Uruguay was annexed to Brazil in and was known as the Cisplatine Province. On 25 AugustJuan Antonio Lavallejaat the head of a group of patriots called the "treinta y tres orientales" "33 Easterners"issued a declaration of independence. After a three-year fight, a peace treaty signed on 28 August guaranteed Uruguay's independence.

Disappointed in his hopes for the presidency, Lavalleja launched a series of rebellions. During this period of political turmoil and civil war, the two political parties around which Uruguayan history has traditionally revolved, the Colorados reds and the Blancos whiteswere founded.

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Uruguay's first president, Gen. The second president, Brig. Manuel Oribe, a friend of Lavalleja, founded the Blancos. The 19th century was largely a struggle between the two factions. Some measure of national unity was achieved in the s.

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The Batlle administrations —07, —15 marked the period of greatest progress. A distinguished statesman, Batlle initiated the social welfare system codified in the Uruguayan constitution. From then on, Uruguay's social programs, funded primarily by earnings of beef and wool in foreign markets, gave Uruguay the sobriquet " Switzerland of South America.

It was during the administration of President Jorge Pacheco Areco —72 that Uruguay entered a political and social crisis. As wool declined in world markets, export earnings no longer kept pace with the need for greater social expenditures. Political instability resulted, most dramatically in the emergence of Uruguay's National Liberation Movement, popularly known as the Tupamaros.

This well-organized urban guerrilla movement mounted a campaign of kidnapping, assassination, and bank robbery while espousing Marxist and nationalist ideals. After Bordaberry assumed office in Marchthe Tupamaros ended a temporary truce and returned to the offensive. Their activities, coupled with the worsening economic situation, exacerbated Uruguay's political uncertainty. Gradually, the military assumed a greater role in government, and by was in control of the system.

By the end ofthe Tupamaros had been crushed. Military officers were named in to head all state-run enterprises, including the Central Bank. The constitution was suspended and political activity was banned.

Psychology

The OAS and other international organizations denounced Uruguay for human rights violations. InAmnesty International estimated the number of political prisoners at 6, Intraparty elections took place in Novemberfollowed by legislative and presidential voting in November Lacking a majority in Congress, Sanguinetti worked closely with other political leaders to reach a consensus on major issues. One of the first acts of the new government was to release all political prisoners.

Another was to declare amnesty for former military and police leaders accused of human rights violations. In an attempt to reconcile warring factions, the government initiated a "social dialogue" with employers and union leaders to reduce social tension.

However, slow progress on the economic front led to the election of the Blanco candidate, Luis Alberto Lacalle.

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Lacalle engaged in an ambitious attempt to liberalize the Uruguayan economy. He emphasized deficit reduction, reforms in education, labor, and the civil serviceas well as the privatization of state enterprises.

However, these plans were dealt a serious blow inwhen a plebiscite failed to ratify a set of proposals for liberalization. In NovemberSanguinetti was returned to office in the closest elections ever recorded in Uruguay's history. The three-way race between the Colorado, Blanco, and Broad Front a leftist coalition parties ended in just a slight majority for Sanguinetti and the Colorados.

Both the Blanco and Broad Front candidates were only a few votes behind. It was the first time the Broad Front party had come within reach of the presidency.

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The Broad Front also gained the municipal government of Montevideo, Uruguay's capital, in and again in In the s, the left had discarded revolutionary rhetoric and become more moderate and more appealing to centrist voters. At the same time, many Uruguayans had grown more critical of the traditional parties.

Sanguinetti himself immediately embarked on a program of economic reforms, including a long-range plan for cutting back on Uruguay's historically generous social programs and benefits, including 20 days of vacation after a year of work, paid maternity leave, and a generous retirement package.

Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Yet voters had twice rejected privatization of state-owned companies, some of which were profitable and often even competitive. The economy also had done well, with the GDP averaging 4. Bythe country's economic picture had changed. Instead of panicking and clamoring for a cut in social benefits and privatization of state industries, presidential candidates from the right and left called for a cautious approach to economic reforms as they neared the October elections.

He had appealed for caution, gaining the largest number of votes for a leftist coalition in the country's history. The Blanco candidate, Luis Lacalle, had finished third with The year-old Batlle, whose great-uncle had built the country's social programs, was not about to dismantle them.

But ultimately, he persevered at the polls by aligning the Colorados with their historic foes: The Blancos aligned themselves with Batlle in exchange for political concessions and ministerial posts. The Sustainable Minerals Institute of Queensland University has provided advice to the Uruguayan Mining and Environment ministries with regard to environmental best practices and mine safety.

Foreign Affairs

Inone Australian student received an Endeavour mobility grant to study in Uruguay. On 8 Julyan Arbitral Tribunal ruled in Uruguay's favour on a challenge brought by tobacco company Philip Morris.

Australia welcomed the decision of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Arbitral Tribunal upholding Uruguay's tobacco regulatory measures and congratulated Uruguay on the outcome of this arbitration.

InAustralia and Uruguay signed a Work and Holiday Visa arrangement effectivewith a reciprocal quota of visas annually. Development assistance InUruguay graduated from the OECD list of countries able to receive offers of development assistance. Under this program, five Australia Awards scholarships were awarded to Uruguayan students.

From tonine Uruguayans have received Australia Award Fellowships. The regional program has now closed, though some activities that have already been funded will continue until Montevideo is the safest city in Latin America 28th safest world-wide.

It has an export-oriented knowledge-based services economy with progressive social policies, a skilled workforce and a good track record of establishing new industries. Achievements include producing a sustainable forestry industry in the s, globally competitive software and call centre export industries, and produces 90 per cent of electricity by renewable energy.

Uruguay's economy is based on solid macroeconomic fundamentals including strong reserves, low debt, high domestic demand and a diversified production structure. Economic outlook Inreal GDP grew by 1.

Ininflation fell to 7. Unemployment remained steady at 7. Uruguay's main exports include beef, oilseeds, cereals, wool, leather, dairy products and wood. Tourism and motor vehicles are also significant components of Uruguay's export sector. Brazil was Uruguay's principal export destination in taking some China is Uruguay's largest import source, with Uruguay offers an attractive trade and investment environment, a very positive disposition to work more closely with Australia, and a history of successful commercial relations through companies such as NuFarm, INCAT and Cochlear and Petrel Energy.

Through its geographical location and its membership of the continent's largest regional trading bloc, Mercosur, it provides strong links into regional markets. Inthe Uruguay-Australia Chamber was established.

Street Skating in Montevideo - The Brazilian-Uruguayan Connection

The Chamber, based in Uruguay, operates under the form of a non-profit civil association. It focuses on promoting and developing relations between Uruguay and Australia.

The dialogue was established in as a mechanism to strengthen cooperation on global trade policy issues and to promote inter-regional trade and investment.

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Similarities in the primary exports of Uruguay and Australia present opportunities for the export of Australian agriculture-related technology and services, including animal genetic material.

One strategy for Australian companies looking to invest and trade in Uruguay is to extend existing interests they may have in Argentina and Brazil.