disintegration - Dictionary Definition : changethru.info
The interpersonal communication that occurs during a relationship deterioration/ dissolution looks to explain the possible "why" behind the relationship breakup and the communication steps that a breakup seems to follow. Studies have looked at the predictors of breakups, the breakup process, the No relationship is established with the thought that it will end with. This relationship calls into question the tenet that schizophrenia is a disease . Selective attention appears to govern an initial filtration process that is .. Such a presentation can be understood as a severe disintegration in. seems like a flow and like a collection of disintegrated parts. These can These elements have a close relation with meaning. In his experiments on thought process Woodworth stressed the reality of thoughts and feelings of relationship.
More global behavioural abnormalities may be noted, such as an increase in arousal and movement described as psychomotor agitation or hyperactivity which might reflect mania or delirium. An inability to sit still might represent akathisiaa side effect of antipsychotic medication. Similarly, a global decrease in arousal and movement described as psychomotor retardationakinesia or stupor might indicate depression or a medical condition such as Parkinson's diseasedementia or delirium.
The examiner would also comment on eye movements repeatedly glancing to one side can suggest that the patient is experiencing hallucinationsand the quality of eye contact which can provide clues to the patient's emotional state. Lack of eye contact may suggest depression or autism. For example, Trzepacz and Baker  describe affect as "the external and dynamic manifestations of a person's internal emotional state" and mood as "a person's predominant internal state at any one time", whereas Sims  refers to affect as "differentiated specific feelings" and mood as "a more prolonged state or disposition".
This article will use the Trzepacz and Baker definitions, with mood regarded as a current subjective state as described by the patient, and affect as the examiner's inferences of the quality of the patient's emotional state based on objective observation.
Alexithymic individuals may be unable to describe their subjective mood state. An individual who is unable to experience any pleasure may be suffering from anhedonia. Vincent van Gogh 's Self Portrait suggests the artist's mood and affect in the time leading up to his suicide. Affect may be described as appropriate or inappropriate to the current situation, and as congruent or incongruent with their thought content. For example, someone who shows a bland affect when describing a very distressing experience would be described as showing incongruent affect, which might suggest schizophrenia.
The intensity of the affect may be described as normal, blunted affectexaggeratedflat, heightened or overly dramatic.
A flat or blunted affect is associated with schizophrenia, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder ; heightened affect might suggest mania, and an overly dramatic or exaggerated affect might suggest certain personality disorders. Mobility refers to the extent to which affect changes during the interview: The person may show a full range of affect, in other words a wide range of emotional expression during the assessment, or may be described as having restricted affect.
The affect may also be described as reactive, in other words changing flexibly and appropriately with the flow of conversation, or as unreactive. This heading is concerned with the production of speech rather than the content of speech, which is addressed under thought process and thought content see below.
When observing the patient's spontaneous speech, the interviewer will note and comment on paralinguistic features such as the loudness, rhythm, prosodyintonationpitch, phonationarticulationquantity, rate, spontaneity and latency of speech. A structured assessment of speech includes an assessment of expressive language by asking the patient to name objects, repeat short sentences, or produce as many words as possible from a certain category in a set time.
Simple language tests form part of the mini-mental state examination. In practice, the structured assessment of receptive and expressive language is often reported under Cognition see below. People with autism spectrum disorders may have abnormalities in paralinguistic and pragmatic aspects of their speech. Echolalia repetition of another person's words and palilalia repetition of the subject's own words can be heard with patients with autismschizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease.
A person with schizophrenia might use neologismswhich are made-up words which have a specific meaning to the person using them. Speech assessment also contributes to assessment of mood, for example people with mania or anxiety may have rapid, loud and pressured speech ; on the other hand depressed patients will typically have a prolonged speech latency and speak in a slow, quiet and hesitant manner.
Thought process cannot be directly observed but can only be described by the patient, or inferred from a patient's speech. Form of the thought is captured in this category. A pattern of interruption or disorganization of thought processes is broadly referred to as formal thought disorderand might be described more specifically as thought blocking, fusion, loosening of associations, tangential thinking, derailment of thought, or knight's move thinking.
Thought may be described as circumstantial when a patient includes a great deal of irrelevant detail and makes frequent diversions, but remains focused on the broad topic. Regarding the tempo of thought, some people may experience flight of ideas a manic symptomwhen their thoughts are so rapid that their speech seems incoherent, although in flight of ideas a careful observer can discern a chain of poetic, syllabic, rhyming associations in the patient's speech.
I love to eat peaches, beach beaches, sand castles fall in the waves, braves are going to the finals, fee fi fo fum. Alternatively an individual may be described as having retarded or inhibited thinking, in which thoughts seem to progress slowly with few associations.
Poverty of thought is a global reduction in the quantity of thought and one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It can also be a feature of severe depression or dementia.
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A patient with dementia might also experience thought perseveration. Thought perseveration refers to a pattern where a person keeps returning to the same limited set of ideas.
Circumstantial thinking might be observed in anxiety disorders or certain kinds of personality disorders. It would describe a patient's suicidal thoughts, depressed cognition, delusionsovervalued ideas, obsessions, phobias and preoccupations. One should separate the thought content into pathological thought, versus non-pathological thought.
Importantly one should specify suicidal thoughts as either intrusive, unwanted, and not able to translate in the capacity to act on these thoughts mens reaversus suicidal thoughts that may lead to the act of suicide actus reus. Abnormalities of thought content are established by exploring individuals' thoughts in an open-ended conversational manner with regard to their intensity, salience, the emotions associated with the thoughts, the extent to which the thoughts are experienced as one's own and under one's control, and the degree of belief or conviction associated with the thoughts.
For instance an alliance to a particular political party, or sports team would not be considered a delusion in some societies. The patient's delusions may be described within the SEGUE PM mnemonic as somatic, erotomanic delusions, grandiose delusionsunspecified delusions, envious delusions c.
There are several other forms of delusions, these include descriptions such as: I was a goat last year among others. Delusions should be reported as primary coming from no particular sourcesecondary sourced from another delusion or hallucinationstertiary sourced from a secondary delusionor a delusional system a network of associated delusions. Delusional symptoms can be reported as on a continuum from: Delusions can suggest several diseases such as schizophreniaschizophreniform disordera brief psychotic episodemaniadepression with psychotic features, or delusional disorders.
One can differentiate delusional disorders from schizophrenia for example by the age of onset for delusional disorders being older with a more complete and unaffected personality, where the delusion may only partially impact their life and be fairly encapsulated off from the rest of their formed personality.
Whereas schizophrenia typically arises earlier in life with a disintegration of personality and a failure to cope with work, relationships, or education. Other features differentiate diseases with delusions as well. Delusions may be described as mood- congruent the delusional content in keeping with the moodtypical of manic or depressive psychosesor mood-incongruent delusional content not in keeping with the mood which are more typical of schizophrenia.
Delusions of control, or passivity experiences in which the individual has the experience of the mind or body being under the influence or control of some kind of external force or agencyare typical of schizophrenia.
Examples of this include experiences of thought withdrawalthought insertionthought broadcastingand somatic passivity. Schneiderian first rank symptoms are a set of delusions and hallucinations which have been said to be highly suggestive of a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Delusions of guilt, delusions of poverty, and nihilistic delusions belief that one has no mind or is already dead are typical of depressive psychoses. Overvalued Ideas[ edit ] An overvalued idea is an emotionally charged belief that may be held with sufficient conviction to make believer emotionally charged or aggressive but that fails to possess all three characteristics of delusion—most importantly, incongruity with cultural norms.
Therefore, any strong, fixed, false, but culturally normative belief can be considered an "overvalued idea". Hypochondriasis is an overvalued idea that one is suffering from an illness, dysmorphophobia that a part of one's body is abnormal, and anorexia nervosa that one is overweight or fat.
Obsessions[ edit ] An obsession is an "undesired, unpleasant, intrusive thought that cannot be suppressed through the patient's volition",  but unlike passivity experiences described above, they are not experienced as imposed from outside the patient's mind. Obsessions are typically intrusive thoughts of violence, injury, dirt or sex, or obsessive ruminations on intellectual themes.
A person can also describe obsessional doubt, with intrusive worries about whether they have made the wrong decision, or forgotten to do something, for example turn off the gas or lock the house.
Interpersonal communication relationship dissolution
In obsessive-compulsive disorderthe individual experiences obsessions with or without compulsions a sense of having to carry out certain ritualized and senseless actions against their wishes. Phobias[ edit ] A phobia is "a dread of an object or situation that does not in reality pose any threat",  and is distinct from a delusion in that the patient is aware that the fear is irrational. A phobia is usually highly specific to certain situations and will usually be reported by the patient rather than being observed by the clinician in the assessment interview.
Impact[ edit ] Men were hit harder by the breakup than the women in the Hill et al. Pre-existing doom[ edit ] Couples who are badly matched from the start, no matter what the initiation action involved, it could not overcome personal differences Mechanical failure[ edit ] When things break, where communication may be poor or interactions go badly.
Without communication a relationship will never survive. Process loss[ edit ] Relationships that die because they do not reach their potential, albeit a slow death, because of poor productivity or communication on one or both of the members of the dyad Sudden death[ edit ] New information on a partner can produce sudden death of the new relationship with a trust violation.
Davis described three conditions that produce "sudden death" in a relationship: Breakup strategies[ edit ] There are at least fifteen strategies used to terminate relationships and are set apart by whether they are unilateral or bilateral and indirect or direct Baxter, Intrapsychic stage[ edit ] Intrapsychic stage begins with one partner who is dissatisfied and secretively searches for a way to "fix" the relationship.
Vaughan states that uncoupling begins with a secretand Duck asserts that the secret of unhappiness is kept that way through the intrapsychic stage. Dyadic stage[ edit ] Dyadic stage where the dissatisfied partner decides to fix the problem by confronting the other partner, thus entering into uncharted territory.
This may not fix what is wrong and just continue to draw out the relationship until the unhappy partner becomes determined to depart, which will move the relationship into the next phase. Social stage[ edit ] Social stage is when the partners devise their accounts of how the breakup happened and how they will present it to their social circles.
If it is in fact the end, they will cross over into the final phase of relationship dissolution. Grave-dressing stage[ edit ] Grave-dressing stage is simply the "attempt to bury and describe the relationship" stage. Partners now create an acceptable story about their love and loss, do whatever cognitive work, including introspectionattributionrationalizationand reassessment of self and other, which is necessary in order to get over the deceased relationship.Relationship Workshop #4: Impact of the Past
Modification of Duck's Stage Model[ edit ] Stephanie Rollie and Steve Duck subsequently modified the original model after a critique of stage models that appear to suppose an orderly and relatively conscious progression through the above stages. Proposing instead five phases of breakdown, Rollie and Duck added a Resurrection Phase which was placed after "Grave Dressing" and represented the period of reconfiguration of self and preparation for new relationships.
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In the modified proposal, the authors articulated changes to communication patterns and topics that would typify each phase, but clarified that the result of the communication could at any time be not simply progression to the next phase of break up but reversion to an earlier state of the relationship.
Experience[ edit ] Harvey explains that when you experience a loss or a depletion of resources, you may need some time to sort out what you had in the first place, what was given up in the breakup, and what remains for you to rely on, cherish or use. Grief is not a passive experience but a series of active choices for the grieving person to confront and resolve in either the direction of healing or prolonged suffering Neeld, Four central tasks of grief[ edit ] Weber outlines the following central tasks for dealing with grief.
Whether you express it to a sympathetic friend or write down your feelings and thoughts in a journal Pennebaker, which can bring long-term benefits, such as greater well-being and emotional recovery.