Karl Marx on Love and Marriage
Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, communist, social scientist, journalist and businessman. His father was an owner of a large textile factory in Salford, England. Engels founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx and in . Engels stayed in Paris to help Marx write The Holy Family. It was an attack on the. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels are regarded as the founders of the Marxist, Belgium, and together with Engels, he participated in a communism-support group which Engels was in a relationship but based on ideological grounds he never. Engels the man has lately replaced Engels the Marxist, but there is more shockingly egalitarian reforms even to family and sexual relations.
She makes at best fleeting appearances in books devoted to Engels, and almost none in any general works on socialism. And since she was illiterate, or nearly so, not to mention Irish, working class and female, she also left only the faintest of impressions in the contemporary record.
The sterling efforts of a few Manchester historians aside, almost nothing is known for certain about who she was, how she lived or what she thought.
Friedrich Engels was not a hypocrite
Lizzie lived with Engels after her sister died, and married him a day before she herself died. No image of Mary is known to exist.
Public Domain Let us begin this attempt at recovered memory by sketching the main setting for the tale. Manchester, it must be said, was a poor choice of exile for a young man whose left-wing convictions had so concerned his family. Government and business alike swore by free trade and laissez fairewith all the attendant profiteering and poor treatment of workers.
It was common for factory hands to labor for 14 hours a day, six days a week, and while many of them welcomed the idea of fixed employmentunskilled workers rarely enjoyed much job security. Thanks in part to staggering infant mortality, the life expectancy of those born in Manchester fell to a mere 28 yearshalf that of the inhabitants of the surrounding countryside. And the city still bore the scars of the infamous Peterloo Massacre in which cavalry units charged down unarmed protesters calling for the vote and had barely begun to recover from the more recent disaster of an unsuccessful general strike.
The work was tedious and clerical, and Engels soon realized that he was less than welcome in the company. As part-owner of the mill, he eventually received a 7. The young German fought briefly in the revolutions ofand for decades pursued an intensive program of reading, writing and research that resulted in a breakdown as early as but eventually yielded a dozen major works.
He also offered financial support to a number of less-well-off revolutionaries—most important, Karl Marx, whom he had met while traveling to Manchester in It is not even certain where they met. Public Domain If Mary was not a factory girl, there were not too many other ways in which she could have made a living. She lacked the education to teach, and the only other respectable employment available was probably domestic service ; an census does suggest that she and her younger sister, Lizzie, worked as servants for a while.
Her mother had died inand she and her sister had to come to terms with a stepmother when their father remarried a year later; perhaps there were pressing reasons for their leaving home.
Certainly a career in domestic service would have taught Mary and Lizzie the skills they needed to keep house for Engels, which they did for many years beginning in Not every historian of the period believes that Mary was in service, though.
Webb, noting that Engels described taking frequent, lengthy walking tours of the city, argues that Mary would scarcely have had the time to act as his guide to Manchester had she labored as a factory hand or servant, and may instead have been a prostitute. If he had been on his own, a middle-class foreigner, it is doubtful he would have emerged alive, and certainly not clothed.
Engels toured Ireland with Mary Burns inwhen almost every village still suffered from the consequences of the disaster. Disease, poverty, inequality of wealth, an absence of education and hope all combined to render life in the city all but insupportable for many. Her father, Michael, labored on and off as a cloth dyer, but ended his days in miserable poverty, spending the last 10 years of his life in a workhouse of the sort made notorious in Oliver Twist.
Mary joined Engels on a brief tour of Ireland induring which they saw as much as two-thirds of the devastated country.
Three young Fenians free two senior Irish revolutionaries from a Manchester police van in November Some sources say Lizzie Burns helped spirit the pair out of Manchester. Engels seems to have acknowledged Mary, at least to close acquaintances, as more than a friend or lover.
How Friedrich Engels, 'Marx's General,' Helped Lead The Revolution : NPR
Engels himself told Marx that only his need to maintain his position among his peers prevented him from being far more open: Unfortunately I cannot manage without lodgings; if I could I would live with her all the time. There were lodgings in Burlington and Cecil Streets where the Burns sisters appear to have earned extra money by renting out spare roomsand in the couple and Lizzie moved into a newly built property in Hyde Road the street on which the Manchester Martyrs would free Thomas Kelly and Timothy Deasy five years later.
When Burns died, on January 6,she was only The earliest signs of discord date back several years. Hunt rightly emphasises that Engels was a pioneering feminist and gives prominence to his book The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.
However, I take issue with his claims of hypocrisy. The article says Friedrich Engels condemned prostitution but enjoyed it himself. In his wild youth, while alone in Paris for a short period, Engels enjoyed the company of les grisettes - but these were working-class girls who enjoyed a good time, and were not synonymous with prostitutes.
Response: John Green: Friedrich Engels was not a hypocrite | Opinion | The Guardian
In Manchester he practically lived with Mary Burns, an Irish working-class woman, and - after her early death - with her sister Lizzie. He was, as far as we know, loyal to both. In referring to the Burns sisters, Hunt claims: And, rather than just a fleeting relationship with Mary, Engels shared most of his free time with her in her humble cottage which he preferred to the "official" residence in town he was, as a manager in the mill, obliged to uphold.
Her place was, as he said, a refuge in his double life as a revolutionary and as a capitalist. After he left the firm, he was finally able to live openly with Lizzie Burns as an accepted partner - though he rejected marriage as a bourgeois institution and married Lizzie only on her deathbed in respect for her religious sentiments.