Merchant of Venice study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, 2 Bassanio wants to marry Portia for what reason? . 24 Some scholars have interpreted the relationship between Antonio and Bassanio as. Get an answer for 'Discuss the relationship between Jessica and Shylock. In Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, are we meant to sympathize with the. Shylock is able to channel his anger because he has control of Antonio. • He's spending a lot of money to try and find Jessica. • He sent friends to try and find her.
The Prince of Arragon chooses the casket of silver. He chooses silver because believes that he deserves to have whatever he wants.
The silver casket contains a portrait of a fool and a scroll branding him as a fool. Quizzes Next Question Main Menu 5. If a suitor chooses the wrong casket, he must: Never reveal his choice. Never court another woman for the purpose of marriage. Which casket does Bassanio choose and what is the result? What request does Antonio make of Bassanio when he learns that he must default on the loan from Shylock? Salanio and Salerio reveal that the ship that sunk in the English Channel belonged to Antonio.
They wonder how a man as good and honest as Antonio could have such bad luck. Bassanio chooses the lead casket. Since Shylock has been pressing the Duke to carry out the terms of their bond, Antonio believes he is about to die. He offers to clear all the debts between Bassanio and himself and asks to see Bassanio one more time in person before he dies.
Portia plans to travel to Venice with Nerissa, unknown to their new husbands.
She tells Nerissa that they will appear to their husbands disguised as men and promises to explain further when they are in the coach. Explain how Portia prevented Shylock from killing Antonio.
What law does Portia invoke to punish Shylock? What are the conditions of the final judgment against Shylock? What does Portia request from Bassanio as payment for saving Antonio?
What plot do Portia and Nerissa hatch at the end of this act to trick their husbands further? As Shylock is about to cut out Antonio's flesh, Portia as Balthasar warns him that the bond calls only for a pound of flesh, but "not a jot of blood. After Shylock gives up his suit, Portia as Balthasar informs him of a law regarding the attempted murder of a citizen by an alien.
Half of his goods must be given to the intended victim, and the other half to the state. The offender's life lies with the mercy of the Duke. The Duke spares Shylock's life and indicates that the forfeiture of half of his property to the state may be reduced to a fine.
Antonio adds that if the Duke will be satisfied with a fine, he will keep his half of Shylock's goods in trust, to be given to Jessica and Lorenzo at the time of Shylock's death. Antonio adds two other stipulations: Shylock must convert to Christianity, and he must leave the rest of his property in his will to Jessica and Lorenzo. The Duke announces that Shylock must agree to all of these conditions, or he will recant his pardon of Shylock's life.
He explains that the ring is a gift from his wife, and he cannot give it away. How do Portia and Nerissa make sport of their husbands in Act V? What news does Portia have for Antonio regarding his ships? What does Portia give to Jessica at the end of the play? What is the dramatic purpose of Act V? At Belmont, Portia and Nerissa accuse their husbands of giving away their rings to women, which is actually true, but the husbands vehemently deny it thinking that they gave their rings to Balthasar and his clerk.
Portia warns Bassanio to keep the "doctor" away from her, since she would be as generous as Bassanio and would probably not be able to deny him anything. She adds that she might even sleep with the doctor if Bassanio leaves her alone with him. Portia finally reveals the truth, and hands Antonio the ring to give to Bassanio.
She reveals a letter from Dr. Bellario identifying her as the young doctor Balthasar and Nerissa as her clerk. She gives Antonio a letter saying that three of his merchant ships "are richly come to harbor," but she will not reveal the "strange accident" by which she came upon the letter.
Portia gives Jessica a deed entitling her to all of Shylock's possessions after his death. Act V is effective dramatically, even though the main action of the play is essentially over. The ring plot is a clever twist that gives actors the opportunity for broad, as well as subtle, comedy. The lighthearted mood of the last scene, in contrast to the trial scene in Act IV, and the fact that the ending is a celebration of romantic love, reinforces categorizing the play as a comedy.
In Belmont is a lady richly left; Sometimes from her eyes I did receive fair speechless messages. I will do anything, ere I be married to a sponge. Hath a dog money? Is it possible A cur can lend three thousand ducats? I am like to call thee so again, To spit on thee again, to spurn thee too. Bassanio is explaining to Antonio that he loves Portia, a lady of considerable wealth who lives in Belmont.
He believes that she also communicated her affection for him by the way she looked at him. Quotes Next Question Main Menu 2.
Portia is discussing her suitors with Nerissa, her gentlewoman. She is making fun of a German, the Duke of Saxony's nephew, complaining that he drinks to excess.
She jokes that she can distract him from selecting the right casket by placing a glass of wine nearby. By comparing him to a sponge, she emphasizes his drinking habits. Quotes Next Question Main Menu 3. When Antonio and Bassanio ask Shylock for a loan, he sarcastically reminds Antonio of his past insults.
He deeply resents the Christians who abuse him and then come to him when they need his help. Quotes Next Question Main Menu 4. When Shylock accuses Antonio of insulting him, Antonio not only doesn't deny it, but admits that he would be likely to insult and spit on him again.
Our house is hell, and thou, a merry fool, Didst rob it of some taste of tediousness. I am right loath to go. There is some ill a-brewing towards my rest, For I did dream of moneybags tonight.
There will come a Christian by, Will be worth a Jewess' eye. All that glisters is not gold She expresses her unhappiness at having to live in her father's house and admits that Launcelot's comic entertainment relieved the tedium. Shylock has accepted Bassanio's dinner invitation, but only because he wants to savor the sight of the Christian foolishly spending his borrowed money. However, he has some misgivings about leaving his house that night. His dream of moneybags seems to foreshadow the loss of his gold and jewels when Jessica elopes with Lorenzo and steals some of his money.
When Launcelot delivers Bassanio's dinner invitation to Shylock, he also delivers this cryptic message to Jessica. Jessica understands its meaning: Lorenzo received her message and has promised to meet her so they can elope. The Prince of Morocco selects the gold casket, reasoning that it would be an insult to Portia's beauty to put her portrait in any but the most valuable of the three caskets.
However, the gold casket contains a death's head and a scroll telling him he has lost his suit. This quote is the first line of the scroll. It reminds him that a flashy appearance is not necessarily evidence of inner worth. But since I am a dog, beware my fangs. We'll see our husbands before they think of us.
You that choose not by the view, Chance as fair, and choose as true! Which when you part from, lose, or give away, Let it presage the ruin of your love. The paper as the body of my friend, And every word in it a gaping wound Issuing lifeblood. I had it of Leah when I was a bachelor. I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys. After Antonio's ships were lost, Shylock has him arrested immediately for forfeiture of the bond. When Antonio pleads with him for a hearing, Shylock refuses to listen, recalling that Antonio has called him a dog "a cur".
Now Antonio must fear Shylock's vengeful fangs. Portia explains her plan to Nerissa. They will disguise themselves as men, Balthasar and his servant, and go to the court in Venice to help Antonio. Portia means that their husbands, Bassanio and Gratiano, will see their wives, but will not recognize them.
This is the beginning of the scroll in the lead casket, Bassanio's choice. It announces that he has made the correct choice and may claim Portia as his wife.
The scroll commends Bassanio for not relying solely on outward appearances. After Bassanio selects the right casket, Portia gives him a ring as a symbol of their love. She warns him that if he ever parts with the ring, it will mean the end of their love.
The subplot involving the rings is dramatically useful. After the climax of the casket plot and the resolution of the trial of Antonio, Shakespeare needed something to keep the audience's attention focused on the lovers.
Quotes Next Question Main Menu 5.
The Merchant of Venice – Interactive Study Guide
Bassanio has just received a letter from Antonio explaining that all his ships were lost, and he is at Shylock's mercy.
He explains to Portia why he is in debt to his friend. The "gaping wound" image emphasizes the strength of his friendship with Antonio and also refers to the terms of the loan from Shylock, a pound of Antonio's flesh if he doesn't pay up. Quotes Next Question Main Menu 6. When Tubal visits Shylock, he tells him that a merchant showed him a ring that he traded Jessica for a monkey.
In an emotional statement, he admits that the ring, given to him by his wife Leahhas great sentimental value. The image he uses, "a wilderness of monkeys," is an example of Shakespeare's brilliant use of imagery. Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desir'st. The quality of mercy is nor strained.
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven. By my soul there is no power in the tongue of man to alter me. Portia says this to Shylock as she warns him that the bond calls for a pound of flesh, but not a drop of blood.
If he spills any Christian blood, he will die and all of his property will be confiscated by the state of Venice. These are the first lines of Portia's famous "mercy speech.
It is an eloquent appeal to show mercy for mercy's sake. She describes it as a quality that is "enthroned in the hearts" of the most powerful monarchs, and even "an attribute to God himself. After Portia as Balthasar looks over the terms of the bond, she notices that Antonio has offered three times the amount of the loan and again asks Shylock to be merciful and destroy the bond.
This quote is Shylock's irrevocable response. As Shylock prepares to cut out Antonio's flesh, Antonio asks to be commended to Bassanio's new wife, who can judge for herself Antonio's devotion to his friend.
The Merchant of Venice – Interactive Study Guide
In this response, Bassanio emotionally offers to sacrifice his life, his wife, and all the world in order to deliver Antonio from this fate. Portia comically responds that his wife would not thank him for that, if she were near enough to hear his words.
Give order to my servants that they take No note at all of our being absent hence; Nor you, Lorenzo; Jessica, nor you. I had it of him. Pardon me, Bassanio, For by this ring the doctor lay with me. Let us go in; And charge us there upon inter'gatories, And we will answer all things faithfully. Before Bassanio and Gratiano arrive in Belmont, Portia instructs Lorenzo, Jessica and her servants not to reveal that she and Nerissa have been away from Belmont. Portia wants to reveal their charade at a time of her own choosing, for maximum shock effect on Bassanio.
By yonder moon I swear you do me wrong; In faith, I gave it to the judge's clerk… Click anywhere to show answer.
Jessica (The Merchant of Venice) - Wikipedia
Gratiano is defending himself to Nerissa when she demands to see the ring she gave him. After Portia produces the ring, she can't resist another jab at Bassanio, saying that she got the ring when "the doctor lay with me.
At the end of the play, Portia acknowledges that Bassanio and Gratiano still probably have questions about the events that have transpired. She promises to answer all their questions truthfully. In sooth, I know not why I am so sad. I, 1 No reason is given in the play for his melancholy. Is Shakespeare suggesting that the quest for material wealth is doomed to sadness and frustration.
Is this also true of Shylock? Characters Next Main Menu Antonio - 2 Antonio also possesses an incorrigible dislike of Jews, having kicked and spit on Shylock in the past. Antonio is beloved of his friends and ultimately proves merciful to Shylock, although he requires him to convert to Christianity. In the end, Antonio learns to achieve happiness by risking all his material wealth for the sake of friendship.
Bassanio is a key figure in both main plots: Bassanio, a suitor of Portia, must select the correct casket to win her hand. Characters Portia - Henry Woods, Next Main Menu Portia - 2 Although Portia delivers one of the most famous speeches in the play on the quality of mercy, she displays cruelty to Shylock when she awards half of his estate to the state and the other half to Antonio, as the Venetian whose life he threatened.
Critics who are sympathetic to Shylock sometimes see Portia as an example of Christian prejudice and cruelty. A greedy and bloodthirsty moneylender A clownish Jewish stereotype A tragic figure who is persecuted by a backwards society Shylock is despised as a moneylender, or usurer, but this was the only occupation a Jew could have in medieval Venetian society.
I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? The moon shines bright Watercolor on paper by John Edmund Buckley. Act 5, Scene 1—the final scene of the play, and following on from the courtroom scene in Act 4—opens with Jessica and Lorenzo strolling in the gardens of Belmont. They exchange romantic metaphors, invoking in turn characters from classical literature: No sooner has Stephano informed them that Portia and Nerissa will soon arrive than Gobbo comes with the same news for Bassanio and Gratiano.
They decide to await the arrivals in the gardens, and ask Stephano to fetch his instrument and play for them. The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils; — Lorenzo, The Merchant of Venice  Portia and Nerissa enter, followed shortly by Bassanio, Antonio, and Gratiano.
After they are all reunited, Nerissa hands Lorenzo a deed of gift from Shylock, won in the trial, giving Jessica all of his wealth upon his death.
Fled with a Christian! O, my Christian ducats!
In this version it is Munday's Jessica analogue, Brisana, who pleads the case first in the courtroom scene, followed by Cornelia, the Portia analogue.
The Christian in love with a Jewess appears frequently in exemplum from the 13th to the 15th century. However, in this story the Christian lover flees alone with the treasure. His daughter, Floripas, proceeds to murder her governess for refusing to help feed the prisoners; bashes the jailer's head in with his keychain when he refuses to let her see the prisoners; manipulates her father into giving her responsibility for them; brings them to her tower, and treats them as royalty; does the same for the remaining ten of the Twelve Peers when they are captured too; helps the Peers murder Sir Lucafere, King of Baldas when he surprises them; urges the Peers to attack her father and his knights at supper to cover up the murder; when her father escapes and attacks the Peers in her tower, she assists in the defence; then she converts to Christianity and is betrothed to Guy of Burgundy; and finally, she and her brother, Fierabras decide that there is no point trying to convert their father to Christianity so he should be executed instead.
The reason for the cruelty of the Sultan's two children is quite obvious. In the romances there are two sides: Once Floripas and Ferumbras had joined the 'good' side, they had to become implacable enemies of the Sultan.
There was no question of filial duty or filial love; one was either a Saracen or a Christian, and that was all there was to it. There is not any other moral standard for the characters. Religion, race, and gender[ edit ] Critical history[ edit ] Literary critics have historically viewed the character negatively, highlighting her theft of her father's gold, her betrayal of his trust, and her apparently selfish motivations and aimless behaviour.
In her survey, "In Defense of Jessica: In the interim between the signing of the bond and its falling due this daughter, this Jessica, has wickedly and most unfilially betrayed him. Quite without heart, on worse than an animal instinct—pilfering to be carnal—she betrays her father to be a light-of-lucre carefully weighted with her sire's ducats. In such a reading Jessica's actions amount to abandoning her father and betraying him to his enemies.
She was still viewed as inhabiting primarily negative values, in contrast with the positive values associated with Portia, Bassanio, and Antonio. The relationship of Jessica and Lorenzo to the primary lovers, Portia and Bassanio, consistently is contrastive and negative: Slights highlights comedies where children rebel against a miserly father, or romances where daughters defy a repressive father for love.
These conventions would be familiar for both Shakespeare and an Elizabethan theatre audience, and, indeed, modern audiences tend to accept Jessica's actions as natural within the context of the plot.
Her escape from Shylock's repressive household to Belmont a quest for freedom, and from misfortune to happiness. Similarly, in Salernitano's 14th novella, the daughter makes off with her father's money, to the same effect. It ranks him with the miserly fathers in Elizabethan and classical comedies, who are only fit to be dupes of their children ….
The first critical notice of Jessica in the 18th century was made by William Warburtonwho commented on the line in Act 5, Scene 1: This changed the meaning, as an acerbic Malone points out: I should not have attempted to explain so easy a passage, if the ignorant editor of the second folio, thinking probably that the word get must necessarily mean beget, had not altered the text, and substituted did in the place of do, the reading of all the old and authentick editions; in which he has been copied by every subsequent editor.
Launcelot is not talking about Jessica's father, but about her future husband. I am aware that, in a subsequent scene, he says to Jessica, 'Marry, you may partly hope your father got you not;' but he is now on another subject.
Malone's position turned out to be somewhat controversial. In his revised edition in[d] multiple notes appeared in response. The first, by George Steevensoffers an alternate reading of the passage: Malone, however, supposes him to mean only—carry thee away from thy father's house. Malone charges the editor of the second folio so strongly with ignorance, I have no doubt but that did is the true reading, as it is clearly better sense than that which he has adopted. Launcelot does not mean to foretell the fate of Jessica, but judges, from her lovely disposition, that she must have been begotten by a christian, not by such a brute as Shylock: At further issue was Malone's tarring of all the previous editors with the same brush, for which Steevens was particularly sore.