Pashtuns - Wikipedia
Most Afghan and Pakistani Pashtuns have cultural ties that date back centuries. The Durand Line border has failed to separate them and. Interference in each other's affairs has caused conflict among sub-tribes Pashtuns are historically the dominant ethnic community in Afghanistan, and they 85 per cent of the more than 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan were Pashtuns. The Pashtun people that straddle Afghanistan and Pakistan are . but his relationship with his masters turned sour, partly due to his Pashtun.
Concurrently, the Afridi tribesmen began to rise up in arms against the British, creating a zone of instability between Peshawar and the Durand Line. As a result, travel across the boundary was almost entirely halted, and the Pashtun tribes living under the British rule began to orient themselves eastward in the direction of the Indian railways.
By the time of the Indian independence movementprominent Pashtun nationalists such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan advocated unity with the nearly formed Dominion of Indiaand not a united Afghanistan — highlighting the extent to which infrastructure and instability began to erode the Pashtun self-identification with Afghanistan.Why Afghans hate Pakistan?
By the time of Pakistan independence movementpopular opinion among Pashtuns was in support of joining the Dominion of Pakistan. The Afghan government has not formally accepted the Durand Line as the international border between the two states, claiming that the Durand Line Agreement has been void in the past.
Why the border can't separate Afghan and Pakistani Pashtuns
Pakistan feels that the border issue had been resolved before its birth in It also fears a revolt from the warring tribes which could eventually bring the state down as it happened when Ahmad Shah Durrani unified the Pashtuns and toppled the Mughal Empire of India. This unmanagable border has always served as the main trade route between Afghanistan and the South Asiaespecially for supplies into Afghanistan. Secondly, it politically and financially backed secessionist politicians in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the s.
Afghanistan's policies placed a severe strain upon Pakistan—Afghan relations in the s, up until the s, when the movement[ which? The Pashtun assimilation into the Pakistani state followed years of rising Pashtun influence in Pakistani politics and the nation's bureaucracy, culminating in Ayub KhanYahya KhanIshaq Khan — all Pashtuns, attaining leadership of Pakistan.
Pashtuns - Minority Rights Group
The largest nationalist party of the time, the Awami National Party ANPdropped its secessionist agenda and embraced the Pakistani state, leaving only a small Pakhtunkhwa Millat Party to champion the cause of independence in relation to both Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Despite the weaknesses of the early secessionist movement, this period in history continues to negatively influence Pakistani-Afghan relations in the 21st century, in addition to the province's politics. War in Afghanistan —presentAfghans in Pakistanand Afghanistan—Pakistan skirmishes George Crile III and Charlie Wilson Texas politician with an unnamed political personality in the background person wearing the aviator glasses looking at the photo camera.
They were the main players in Operation Cyclonethe code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm and finance the multi-national mujahideen during the Soviet—Afghan Warto Relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan began deteriorating in the s after Pakistan supported rebels such as Gulbuddin HekmatyarAhmad Shah Massoud Haqqanisand others against the governments of Afghanistan. The Islamic State of Afghanistan, and then by the military actions that unfolded between them and the new grouping, the Islamic Taliban movement.
At the same time, neither before nor after this period did Pakistan project its power on Afghanistan so directly and effectively. The sixth stage began with the elimination of the Taliban in Afghanistan and continued until the middle of It should be noted a significant weakening during this period of the impact of Pakistan on the neighboring country.
Pakistan had to experience at this stage the grave consequences of the retreat of the Afghan Taliban and the allied Islamist armed groups into its territory and the transformation of its northwest not only into the shelter of militants but also into the space of their sabotage and terrorist activity.
Burdened by the emergence of local Taliban militants on its own land, Pakistan fell into a crisis situation and lost much of its ability to exert direct political influence on Afghanistan, continuing to indirectly and implicitly influence the situation there, providing shelter and assistance to the Afghan Taliban and its allies. The importance of Pakistan after turned into an extremely significant one from the point of view of strategic logistics in the conditions of deployment of a significant grouping of troops of the international coalition in Afghanistan.
Equally significant was the role of Pakistan as a transit territory, providing Afghanistan with imported goods.
The prospects for resolving traditional disputes and conflicts between Afghanistan and Pakistan will largely depend on the nature of the regimes that will be established in both states. After the end of the crisis caused by the summing up of the presidential elections in Afghanistan inthere were reasons to expect a more favorable development of the situation in the country, at least in the short term.
Historical perspective of Pak-Afghan Relations - Daily Times
The same can be said about the situation in Pakistan, where the parliamentary elections demonstrated the ability of the political system to avoid a crisis after the constitutionally fixed terms of office of the parliament and government.
Adoption of democratic regimes can allow Afghanistan and Pakistan to strengthen political and trade-economic ties among themselves, resolve, if not de jure, then de facto border issue, reduce threats to security and cut back claims on the power of radical Islamists — the Taliban and their allies.
The power and leadership of individuals are perhaps what divides Pashtuns, not only into different tribes but also into numerous sub-tribes, each isolated within their own borders. Yet despite their infighting, they have generally rallied to form a unified front when challenged by external threats or interference by a central non-Pashtun government.
Historical context Pashtuns are historically the dominant ethnic community in Afghanistan, and they have actively fought to keep their predominance throughout Afghan history. In the years before Pashtuns made up about 40 per cent of the Afghan population. After the Soviet invasion insome 85 per cent of the more than 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan were Pashtuns.
- Historical perspective of Pak-Afghan Relations
- Afghanistan–Pakistan relations
They have always played a central role in Afghan politics, and their dominant position has been a major catalyst in triggering conflict. For example, conflict arose between partners in the Mujahidin coalition which fought the Soviet troops and opposed the regime of President Mohammad Najibullah. This period brought severe poverty to Afghanistan, accompanied by food insecurity for most Afghans, and large-scale displacement and emigration, though some Pashtun communities were treated favourably and protected against the worst of the conditions.
However, though Pashtuns were in power, the majority of the community nonetheless continued to suffer discrimination. This was particularly true for Pashtun families who had been moved to the north more than years earlier by Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, as part of a state consolidation effort.
They were left to the mercy of the Tajiks and Uzbeks who are the predominant ethnic groups in the area. With the collapse of the Taliban regime and the signing of the Bonn Agreement inPashtun dominance over the other ethnic groups in Afghanistan came to an end.