True Confessions of Ferdinand and Isabella | Author Suzanne Adair
Do you want to learn more about a current relationship? Isabella married Fernando, in time they became queen of Castilla and king of Aragon. . All this acting as one kingdom helping each other but with different names in each place (they. Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile in Valladolid, thus beginning a cooperative reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain and elevate the. The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Isabella's claims to it were not secure, since her marriage to Ferdinand enraged her half-brother Although Aragon provided support for Isabella's cause, Isabella's supporters had extracted concessions.
The monarchs totted up an impressive record for genocide and persecution. In alone they conquered Granada, the last Moorish stronghold, driving out or enslaving the remaining Muslims, and expelled the Jews on the very day that Columbus set sail. They also persecuted the Roma, often called gypsies, whose peripatetic lifestyle was partly due to laws forbidding them to settle down in one place—much as medieval Jews acquired a reputation for expertise in banking by being forbidden to join any of the craft guilds that would have given them a broader choice of occupations.
Ferdinand and Isabella were quick to exploit the wealth of the Jews. Conversos, Jews who had expediently converted to Christianity, became their bankers.
One of the modern arguments for the possibility that Columbus was Jewish is that his voyage was financed not by Isabella but by converso bankers. I can imagine Isabella saying: If he finds the Indies, the profits will be enormous.
Portugal dominates trade around the coast of Africa, but a passage to the Indies to the west would be all ours. Ferdinand and Isabella, not to mention all the Spaniards who accompanied Columbus on his voyages, had a greater lust for gold than Columbus himself, whose greatest wish was to bring an abundant return on their investment to the King and Queen.
When gold proved to be in shorter supply in Hispaniola than expected, he made up the shortfall by taking Taino slaves and transporting them across the sea in conditions as appalling as those in the slaving ships of the 18th and 19th centuries. This is a fashionable idea today. But first, it was the Christians, not the Jews, who longed to expel the Muslims from Jerusalem in the later Middle Ages—hence the Crusades.
Second, Columbus expected to find existing civilizations open to trade with Europe, not empty lands. And third, the King and Queen made it perfectly clear when they agreed to sponsor the second voyage that all lands claimed and gold mined or collected became the property of the Crown.
As rebellion broke out in Segovia that August, Isabella continued to prove that she was a powerful ruler when she rode out to suppress it while Ferdinand was off fighting in the war. Her advisors had told her not to go, but she did so anyways all by herself and negotiated with the rebels. Quickly, Isabella had been able to end the rebellion. When her son John, Prince of Asturias was born in June ofthis legitimized her place as the ruler to many.
The naval Battle of guinea was fought that same year and was a decisive victory for the Portuguese. The War of the Castilian Succession continued on. In the end, it was a Castilian victory on land, but a Portuguese victory on sea.
Isabella and Ferdinand had to accept that Joanna live in Portugal and they give up the Portuguese crown. Because of the bad state Castile was in due to Henry, Isabella had to work on reform for her country when she first became queen in She focused on regulating crime after it was said that her brother and predecessor allowed many crimes to go unpunished. Historians now describe her as being inclined to justice more so than to mercy because of the measures she used upon becoming queen.
Her husband, Ferdinand, was much more forgiving than Isabella, who was the opposite when it came to crime. The Hermandad had been in Castile for some time, but Isabella was the first monarch to use the police force. Instead, members of the nobility ad been in charge of keeping things under control, not the police and other royal officials. The following year, Isabella also traveled to introduce her new police force to Extremadura and Andalusia.
Two officials were also charged with restoring pace in the province of Galicia, which was full of robbers on the highways and in small towns. These officials turned out to be quite successful and drove more than 1, robbers out of Galicia.
Spain - THE GOLDEN AGE - Ferdinand and Isabella
To make more money, Henry had been selling off the royal estates for cheap prices, being one of the main causes for so much of the country being in poverty.
The royal treasury gained more and more money as the nobility paid large sums for their estates. One of the other issues Castile was facing financially was over production of coinage from Henry raising the number of mints from five to one-hundred-fifty. Isabella established a monopoly over royal mints in just the first year of her reign.
She shut down many of the mints producing worthless coinage and took control over money production. Their main achievement in Castile was use the existing institutions more effectively. Isabella began taking a firm grip of the royal administration in the s. She made sure the senior offices of the royal household were honorary titles held by nobility only. Senior churchmen were often given secretarial positions.
The nobility may have held titles, but those who did not come from noble families were usually the ones doing the real work. Isabella also made many reforms in during the Cortes of Toledo to the Royal Council, which was the traditional main advisory to the rulers of Castile.
Instead of two distinct overlapping categories, she completely eliminated the second category, which held a less formal role and depended on the political influence of the individual. The first category was made of people with judicial and administrative responsibilities. Isabella did not care for bribes and favors so she made sure the second councillor, made up mainly of nobility, only attended the council of Castile as observers. More than ever before, Isabella also came to rely on professional administrators, which were men who normally came from lesser families.
She rearranged the council so that the nobles were no longer involved with direct matters of state. By doing this, Isabella hoped that she would weed out the members of the nobility who did not care much for the state. She realized that she needed to have a personal relationship as the monarch with her subjects. Every friday, time was set aside for Isabella and Ferdinand to sit allow people to come up to them with their complaints.
Castile had never before seen this personal form of justice. The Council of State was also reformed to put the monarchs in charge. These many reforms made by Isabella may have seemed to be making the Cortes stronger, but it turned out that the Cortes was losing political power.
Isabella and Ferdinand began moving towards having a non-parliamentary government, the Cortes becoming a nearly passive advisory body. Alfonso Diaz de Montalvo was hired directly by Isabelle to clear away any legal issues and compiling the remains into a comprehensive code. Granada was the only place left for Isabella and Ferdinand to conquer at the end of the Reconquista.
Granda had been protected by natural barriers and fortified towns, keeping it from being conquered during the long reconquista.
True Confessions of Ferdinand and Isabella
Isabella and Ferdinand reached Medina del Campo on February 1,which has been considered the general beginning of the war for Grenada. After ten years though, they had finally conquered Granada in Isabella and Ferdinand entered Granada to receive the keys of the city on January 2, Later that year, they also signed the Treaty of Granada, promising to let the Muslims and Jews on the island live peacefully. By recruiting soldiers from all over Europe and improving their artillery, Isabella and Ferdinand were able to build up a much stronger army.
Piece by piece, they continued to take their kingdom. After only a brief siege lasting two weeks, Ronda fell to Spain in Loja was taken the following year in when they captured Muhammad XII then released him. At this point, the whole of the western Muslim Nasrid kingdom fell back to Spain. The east followed when Baza fell in In the spring ofthey began the siege of Granada.
Catholic Monarchs - Wikipedia
Muhammad XII surrendered at the end of the year. Queen Isabella is perhaps most notable for working with Christopher Columbus. Three months after she and Ferdinand entered Granada, she agreed to sponsor Columbus on his goal to sail west and reach the indies. They agreed to pay him a sum of money for his expedition. Columbus and his crew set sail on August 3, He brought natives of the island and gold back with him, welcomed like a hero.
Isabella sponsored him right from the start, but there is no evidence of royal payments to him until when he returned.
From then on, Spain had entered their Golden Age for exploration and colonization, the period of what we now know as the Spanish Empire, which was established in and lived on until Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to divide the Earth into parts in under the Treaty of Tordesillas. Isabella did not agree with Columbus enslaving natives from the Americas though. She tried to enforce new policies of the Canaries so that all people of the land were subjects to Castile and could not be enslaved.
These laws and principles did not have much effect during her lifetime though. The Spanish Jews pleading before their king and queen. The Alhambra decree was issued on March 21, and expulsion of the Jews ensued. They had three months, until the end of July, to leave Spain without any of their gold, silver, money, horses, or arms.
Traditionally, people have stated that more than 20, Jews left Spain during this time. More recent studies done by Historians have shown that only about 40, of the 80, Jews left Spain while the other converted to Christianity. Isabella and Ferdinand had gone through a physical unification of Spain and spiritual unification as they tried to convert their country and subjects into Roman Catholicism.