A detailed writing frame to help pupils produce an essay answering the question- describe the relationship between Ariel and Prospero-. Includes a lesson powerpoint, extract from Act 1 scene 2 and quotes about their relationship. 1 In Shakespeare's play The Tempest there are variant power relations. The main character Prospero's relationship with each character: Ariel, Caliban, Ariel is also like an instructor, he gives advice to him from the very beginning and.
He has, as he experiences it, no peers, only inferiors: As will be 3 shown later on, Arendt completely disagrees with these definitions and argues that only if power is equated to domination does the term lose its original quality and a number of quite distinct phenomena lose their individual character. But if the term is stretched to account for a great vari- ety of phenomena, it becomes too broad and results in a phrase that is increasingly stripped of its original meaning.
As the title suggests, it deals with the term violence and how it is used in these historical contexts, paying special attention to the currency and im- portance that violence has gained in the 20th century. She points out that violence is often seen as an extreme form of power in the way that the state reacts to the student demonstrations or wages war against the Vietnamese population and that the terms are often treated as synonyms.
It is the equation of power with violence in the discourse of political science that she argues against in this essay. She does not negate that violence is a human emotion especially during the course of part III of the essaybut it is misunderstood as a part of politics, whereas she is of the opinion that is is exactly the opposite, namely an anti-political phenomenon.
In her view, the complex relationship of power, domination, and violence in political discourse results in the blurring of re- lated terms that are then interpreted as synonyms with power when power is seen as a means of domination Arendt In addition to power and violence, the terms she analyzes are strength, force, and authority, which will be explained in the following paragraphs.
Most of these character relations have one basic thing in common: At first glance, power thus seems to signify the domination of one character group over another.
The Desire and Search For Power in Shakespeare's Play The Tempest | GIZEM ISCAN - changethru.info
As the title suggests, it deals with the term violence and how it is used in these historical contexts, paying special attention to the currency and im- 7 portance that violence has gained in the 20th century. In her view, the complex relationship and con- fusion of power, domination, and violence in political discourse results in the blur- ring of related terms that are then interpreted as synonyms with power when power is seen as a means of domination Arendt In addition to power and violence, the terms she analyzes are strength, force, and authority, which will be explained in the fol- lowing paragraphs.
Power does not depend on the strength more below of the individual to subdue the other members of the group, and the power structure can only be maintained as long as the group is intact.
Ar- endt 40; Peeters —4. It is strongly connected to independence and thus sets the individual with this property apart from other groups. Strength at least to some degree implies a physical strength, but also a character quality. When compared to power, strength is inherently secondary, meaning that strength can always be over- come by group power if it is only large enough cf.
As soon as this recognition fails, authority fails. Personal authority can be linked to the oikos, the relation of a patriar- chal household where the father is the figure of authority. As an instrument, it serves to achieve a goal, which is usually augmenting natural strength Arendt It is dis- tinct from power by its inability to be legitimate.
Since power is created by the com- mon action of a group, this agreement serves to legitimize power in the future; in contrast, violence can only be justifiable in regards to goals in the future Arendt Since the forces of nature are imper- sonal, they cannot respect authority of any kind, leaving the wielders of authority in a powerless situation.
By referring to Ariel as his slave, Prospero asserts his superior role over Ariel. One who is the property of, and entirely subject to, another person, whether by capture, purchase, or birth; a servant completely divested of freedom and personal rights.
In a contract, both parties should be equal and no party should force the other party to agree. But can a group of two persons be enough to establish power? If this is the case, then power is clearly very limited; with increasing numbers, power also increases. One who submits in a servile manner to the authority or dictation of an- other or others; a submissive or devoted servant.
What this analysis can not ex- plain is why Prospero has to resort to threats of torture, for example in I. However, as the play proceeds, his threats become less and less, and by IV. Shortly shall all my labors end, and thou Shalt have the air at freedom: Authority seems to be the most 13 appropriate description of their relationship because Prospero even takes advice from Ariel in V.
Treating the subject asked to obey as an equal by arguing with them is one of the two ways, besides violence, when a per- son can lose their authority over the other person Arendt In this scene, Prospero does still command Ariel to perform tasks, but no longer threatens him. In contrast, he has nothing but the nicest words for Ariel once it is clear that he has achieved his goal. Vaughan and Vaughan 28; IV.
But judging from the text, there is more to their relationship than mere domination and obedience: At the same time, and despite his harsh words in I. He has nothing but harsh words and insults for Caliban, and the feeling is quite mutual. Action can have manifestations by means of language cf. His threats against Cali- ban and to a certain degree against Ariel are, however, not to be seen as action in the sense Arendt ascribes to the word cf.
Although Prospero does not resort to actual physical violence himself he lets his spirits do this; cf. But maybe Caliban can be the only hope in the play, everybody leaves the island he is the only one left there. He is the only one who remorses and states that he will be a good a person from now on. With the end of Prospero's power and authority, there is no power competiton, no threat and no one to compete with, that's why he thinks optimistic.
If there was a threat to Caliban's authority he would also react like Prospero and Alonso. This situation can be seen in Kafka's ''In the Penal Colony''.
There are arbitrary laws and punishments ''In the Penal Colony'' because this system and its laws are only fond of the creator. Everybody else in this system has to subordinate to the arbitrary laws. Prospero's system functions just like the Penal Colony, with the overthrow of the old commandment Sycorax's authoritya new commandment is re-established.
Prospero is the creator of the system and his arbitrary punishments can be seen in the Caliban example. Caliban is the child of Sycorax the old system's creator, when Prospero creates the new system he puts Caliban in a slave position where he becomes the master. Caliban is punished, tortured pyhsically and he is kept captive in Prospero's prison. He can't defend himself because the laws don't work for his sake.
Prospero does whatever he wants to Caliban because he is at the highest of the hierarchical system and he uses his language, books and magic to sustain his power. Caliban's punishment is an example of arbitrary laws and punishments. Prospero's daughter Miranda is at the center in the play. She stands as a symbol for women who are sold to dukedoms to restore their father's power. Miranda has an important role in the play she is the only woman.
She is the epitomy of chastity and fertility. Without Miranda, all the men in the play have nothing. Prospero sees Miranda as an oppurtunity to restore his dukedom. She's the only woman in the island who is white.
There is no other woman mentioned at all in the play. Prospero has created an order, authority over Miranda since she was a child and because Miranda has never seen something else she is used to this power and authority.
She is locked up like a prisoner in her father's sovereignty. With the shipwreck incident and Ferdinand on the island she is able to perceive and experience something different. She falls in love with Ferdinand and now she isn't fully submissive to her father, she disobeys his command and meets with Ferdinand and reveals her name to him. She is sold to Ferdinand's kingdom. She marries Ferdinand and becomes a queen, but she has no voice, no freedom and no future. She is free from her father's authority and power but now she is under the authority and power of her husband.
In that period and still now nothing has really changed because still most women are opressed, controlled and sovereigned by men.
Miranda's position and situation doesn't change, only the ruler who authorizes Miranda changes, the authority and power shifts from Prospero to Ferdinand. She with her marriage to Ferdinand restores the broken relationship between Alonso and Prospero. Ferdinand's relationship with Prospero can be seen as the master-worker. His character stands as a symbol for workers and manual labour. Prospero has power over Ferdinand and controlles him. He warns Ferdinand about Miranda's chastity and pyhsically limits him.
Ferdinand wants to get off the island for his and Miranda's sake. Prospero forces Ferdinand to do manual labor but he is rewarded in the end with Miranda. Because Prospero's authority has been shaken by Miranda's love to Ferdinand, he is punished.
His work can be seen as punishment which leads to his purification. Prospero manipulates each character and Ferdinand too, to sustain his power. Prospero's power and authority is also depicted in the later scenes where Miranda and Ferdinand play chess in the background. This is an important scene because it reveales Prospero and how he has treated all of the characters like chess pieces, controlling and manipulating them throughout the play, moving them into different parts of the island.
He uses his daughter in this game to win back his lost authority and power in Milan. Ferdinand and Miranda's love for each other gives the reader hope. After Prospero, Miranda and 7 Ferdinand take control of the island with their marriage, but what sort of rulers will they be?
Will they be the manipulaters or the manipulated? Power is everywhere, because it comes from everywhere. The rulers know what they are doing, but they are still continuing it. When Prospero's power comes to an end on the island it is reconstructed in another place, in Milan. Power has neither a beginning or ending, it is out of control.
The desire of power and search for authority make men monsters. They control, opress, torture people but they see themselves right, good and decent.
They create monsters, Prospero sees Caliban as a monster but doesn't realize that he is the true monster. In every person there is a monster it is just waiting for a perfect time and perfect condition to come about. In the play, almost every character is a monster waiting for the right time and right condition to overthrow the ruler and to re-establish their own power and authority.
Shakespeare makes the reader think about questions like; if you are in this hierarchical system how can you stay away from wickedness?
Life is a fight for power. Nobody is different, everybody wants authority, power and wants to be the controller in the play. If Caliban has the chance he will control the island too and maybe have slaves working for himself. This cycle never ends it goes on and on in the play and in real life. This situation makes us question who is the monster here, Caliban, Sebastian, Antonio, Prospero or Alonso? The Tempest has been a play for all eras because it is about human condition, human relationships and the corrupted system.
In the end of the play everybody goes through a transformation. Prospero will be restored to his dukedom in Milan, Ariel will be free, Caliban will be wise, Miranda and Ferdinand will get married. However, the end of the play is 8 illusional there is really no happy ending.
Nature, humans and kingdoms are all tempest.
Madness, the thirst for power and authority is in every period in history. The desire and search for power was important for people in the past and still it has an important place in human life. In conclusion, with the different power relations like father-daughter, master-servant, master-worker and master-slave the play emphasizes on subjects like freedom, imprisonment, civilization, desire of power, authority, obedience and rebellion, challenging the audience to think, question this system and how it functions.
Maybe there is or isn't hope but thought is free, so to believe in change is possible. The island is a utopia just like America which stands for purity, freedom, power, order and supremacy. Every character in the play has a different utopia about the island and its condition.
His utopia still has a chance to exist, but it can only work if everyone forgives each other and agrees to live together in peace.
In the end of the play each character confronts their actions in the past and find out their true selves, this situation is explained in Gonzalo's words: Was Milan thrust from Milan that his issue Should become kings of Naples? O, rejoice Beyond a common joy, and set it down With gold on lasting pillars: His representation of different characters creates mutual symbols that were in the past, as well as in the present world. Shakespeare's works are for all ages, it's important because it has never finished what it has to say.
The play is a reflection of human condition and the desire of power. As a reader, looking closely to the text, we are bound to see many similarities with our present age and time. The new system has no difference from the old system.
All of the law systems are the same in the world, everything and everyone is in a perfect order. Men, women, workers, servants, slaves and the government are a part of this system.