Between Oxus and Jumna: A Journey in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan [Arnold J. Toynbee] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Between Oxus and Jumna [Arnold Joseph Toynbee] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Between Oxus And Jumna [Arnold Toynbee] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Between the rivers of Oxus and Jumna (that is from Iran.

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Search the history of over znd web pages on the Internet. On this journey these two rivers were my limit. Though I saw them both, I did not cross either of them, but I kept on crossing and re-crossing the Indus in between them.

The names of these famous rivers put my journey on the map, so I have taken them for my title.

The Indus and the Jumna both flow through the same enormous plain. There is nothing in the lie of the land to tell you when you are crossing their watershed. But you could not be unaware of the watershed between the Indus and the Oxus. It is a mountain-range whose crest is under snow during the greater part of the year.

Running from south- west to north-east, this range keeps on gaining height. It starts as the Hindu Kush; it culminates in the Pamirs. The passes over the Hindu Kush are few. Only two of them are traversable on wheels. On the 6th May, i, the lower of these two. From the dawn of history till within liv- ing memory, the passage had to be made on foot by the ordi- nary run of travellers.

The passage over the Hindu Kush may sound forbidding, and so indeed it was and is. This mountain-wall has proved, I am told, an insurmountable barrier for trout. But, where fish are baffled, men can find a way, and men have been busily traversing the Hindu Kush since the earliest times to which our records go back.

Human beings have made the rough passage of the Hindu Kush a beaten track, because this mountain-range jumnw between two worlds that wall not submit to being insulated from each other.

Between Oxus and Jumna

At this day, thousands of nomads make the passage twice a year, with their children, lambs, kids, sheep, goats, fowls, donkeys, and camels. And the Hindu Kush has seldom served as a political frontier. Today it is bestridden by the Kingdom oxud Afghanistan. In the early centuries of the Christian Era it was bestridden by the Kushan Empire. This empire extended from the Oxus to the Jumna, and in the whole of my journey I was never outside its bounds.

The Kushan Empire was one of four powers that divided the civilized world between them. For years it had been a lode-stone bewteen me. In I had been tantalized by a glimpse of the fringe of it. In amd I found an opportunity of visiting it more at leisure.

Hence this journey and this book. The friendships that I made have been, for me, the greatest gain of all. I had the honour of delivering the Maulana Azad Lectures for the year i at New Delhi, and of spending a month as a visiting professor at the University of Peshawar.

I was a guest of the Government of Pakistan on my journey through the tribal areas, and a guest of the Government of Afghanistan on my journey in that country. My hosts and travelling-companions are oxks numerous for it to be possible for me to thank each of them individually, so I must give my thanks collectively to most of my friends in the public services of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, on the staff of the British Council in the two first-mentioned of these three countries, and in the British Embassy at Kabul.

There are, however, some names that I cannot forbear to mention, though it is rather arbit- rary to single out any when my gratitude to all is as great as it is. On my journey round Afghanistan, I had the good fortune to be one of a party of seven travellers in two land-rovers.

We were two Englishmen, one Afghan, and four Pakistanis. My fellow countryman was H. Ambassador in Afghanistan, Mr. It was thanks to him entirely that I was able to make this fascinating journey in his company.


I also owe to him the illustrations. These tell, at a glance, what no words can de- scribe adequately. Our Afghan maimandar was Mr.

Twenty-three days on the road together in flood-time forged a lasting bond of intimacy and affection between the seven of us. On my journey through the tribal areas in Pakistan I had the good fortune to be travelling with my old friend Mr Enver Kureishi of the Ministry of Information.

But for him, this journey could never have been made. Without his com- pany, it would not betwesn been the immensely enjoyable experience andd it was for me.

At Peshawar Betwween met with unceasing kindness and hospitality both at the University and in the City. There are more names on the tip of my pen, but I must not allow this note of thanks to grow to ixus extravagant length. So I will beg the forgiveness of my many other friends in these three countries whom I have left unnamed but not forgotten. From a European standpoint they may look as if they do. But Europe is one of the fringes of the Old World, and eccen- tric positions produce distorted views.

Plant yourself, not in Europe, but in Traq, which is the historic centre of our Oik- oumene. Seen from this central position, the road-map of the Old World will assume a very different pattern. It will be- come evident that half the roads of the Old World lead to Aleppo, and half to Begram. The second of these two names marks the site of the historic city of Kapisha-Kanish, at the southern snd of the Central Hindu Kush, where three roads meet after crossing the mountains. Civilization in the Old World seems to have started in Traq about years ago, jumma in the meantime it has spread from Traq both eastwards and westwards.

This progressive spread of civilization from its birth-place in Traq to the ends of the Earth has turned the Oikoumene into a house of many mansions.

Civilization has become plural instead oxys singular; and the civilized world has diversified itself into a festoon of regional civilizations, trailing from Japan at the north-eastern end to Ireland at the north-western end and dipping below the Equator in Java. The younger provinces of civilization, on either side of Traq, do not all stand in the same relation to each other or to anf Oikoumene as a whole.

Between Oxus and Jumna – Arnold Joseph Toynbee – Google Books

The differences between their geographical situations sort them out into two classes. The culs-de-sac are regions on the fringe of the Oikoumene that have received successive influences from the centre but have not been able to pass these influences on to regions farther afield. The roundabouts are regions on which routes converge from all quarters of the compass and from which routes radiate out to all quarters of the compass again.

Classical examples of culs-de-sac are Japan at the north- eastern corner of the Oikoumene, Java at its southernmost bulge, and Morocco, the British Isles, and Scandinavia at its north-western corner. Classical examples of roundabouts are tw o regions flanking Traq on either side.

Syria in the broadest geographical meaning of the name is the roundabout to the west of Traq, and North-Eastern Iran the present-day Afghanistan is the one to the east of her. The vicissitudes of history can turn a cul-de-sac into a roundabout and a roundabout into a cul-de-sac. Western Europe was a cul-de-sac for about years, dating from its incorporation in the Oikoumene in the third century b. During those seventeen centuries the Atlantic was a barrier to any farther westward expansion of the civilization of the Old World.

But the Spanish-born Roman poet Seneca had prophesied that, one day, this barrier would give way to human enterprise, and, after 1years, this prophecy came true. In the fifteenth century the Portuguese invented a new kind of sailing-ship that could keep the sea continuously for months on end. The carriers had been donkeys, horses, and camels. Technology, however, is always reluctant to stand still. In our day we have been seeing a further series of technological inventions: These latest in- ventions have been deposing Western Europe from her tem- porary ascendancy in the World and have been reinstating Syria and Afghanistan.


Both these historic roundabouts would have recaptured their traditional role as focuses of communication still faster than they are doing if their economic recovery were not being handicapped by disputes over political frontiers. These can be as formidable obstacles as any physical barrier.

As for mechanized transport on the ground, the new roads that are being built for Afghanistan by Russian and American civil engineers promise to turn her, once again, into the international thoroughfare that she used to be in the Donkey-and-Camel Age. The Russians are building a new road from Qandahar northward to Kushka, the southernmost rail-head of the rail- way-network of Soviet Central Asia.

The Americans are building a new road from Qandahar south-eastward to Chaman, the terminus of the road and railway in Pakistan that run north-westward from Quetta to the Pakistan- Afghanistan frontier. The Russians are building another new road from Kabul northward to Qyzyl Qala, a river-port that they have already built for Afghanistan on the Afghan bank of the River Oxus.

This is the most direct, but also the highest, of three passes — Salang, Shibar, and Khawak — that cross this section of the Hindu Kush and link the Indo-Pakistani Sub-continent with Central Asia. These new roads promise to reinstate Afghanistan in her traditional position in the World. They are her economic bonus from the present political competition between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Between Oxus and Jumna by Arnold Joseph Toynbee

The bonus is valuable, but the accompanying risk is high. Netween are strategic as well as economic assets, and strategic assets are tempting political betwen.

It will be obvious that Afghanistan is intensely interesting today for a student of contemporary international affairs. It is of equal interest for a bftween of the history of civilization in the Old World during these last five thousand years. Afghanistan has been a highway for migrating peoples and for expanding civiliza- tions and religions, and it has been a key-point in the struc- ture of empires. A few illustrations will be enough to make the point.

A long procession of nomadic or ex-nomadic migrant peoples have passed through Afghanistan from Central Asia en route for the Indo-Pakistani Sub-continent. The Aryas, who passed through at some date during the second half of the second millennium b. They were the fathers of the Hindu civilization that supplanted the pre- Aryan culture which is represented in the Indus valley by the sites at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. A swarm of Iranian-speaking nomadic invaders who occupied the Helmand River basin and the Panjab in the seventh century b.

If it is, we have here a clue to the date at which the ancestors of the present-day Pathans first established themselves in the Oxys mand basin. A second swarm of Iranian-speaking nomads, the Sakas, invaded Afghanistan in the second century b.

Some of these settled in the delta of the Helmand River, as is wit- nessed by the name Seistan which this country still bears to- day instead of its ajd name Sarangia.

Others pushed on far into the Sub-continent. Some of their blood, and still more of their spirit, may have been inherited from them by the present-day Marathas in the highland hinterland of Bom- bay.

Another Central Asian nomadic people, the Yuechi, following close at the Sakas 5 heels, settled in the country be- tween the Oxus and the Hindu Kush which had previously been known as Bactria and which is now included in the Kingdom of Afghanistan.

In the first century of the Christian Era one of the Yuechi tribes, the Kushans, built up an em- pire that straddled the Hindu Kush and stretched from the south bank of the Oxus to the west bank of the Jumna.

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