Seizures that occur around the menstrual cycle are called catamenial epilepsy. Studies show that changes in seizures are most often in the. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Catamenial epilepsy is a subset of epilepsy, which includes women whose.

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Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; 66 3: Recall that estrone is the predominant estrogen present during menopause from subcutaneous fatand little is known about the effect of estrone specifically on epilepsy.

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For more than years, the relationship between seizures and menstruation has been examined. Because progesterone has mainly been shown to have anticonvulsant effects, and because women with catamenial catmaenial under study often had inadequate luteal-phase or anovulatory cycles, it can be hypothesized that progesterone, progesterone metabolites, or estrogen antagonists may be used in conjunction with current antiepileptic medications, to treat these patients.

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review

Enhanced anticonvulsant activity of neuroactive steroids in a rat model of catamenial epilepsy. In a study, it was found that patients with C1 pattern of catamenial epilepsy had overall lower progesterone levels than healthy controls during the M phase.

The diagnosis of catamenial epilepsy is established by careful assessment of menstrual and seizure diaries and characterization of cycle type and duration. Clomiphene therapy in epileptic women with menstrual disorders.

Ovulatory function in epilepsy. Women with epilepsy have reported menstrual disorders, such as amenorrhea the absence of menstruationoligomenorrhea a scanty menstruationcycles of irregular length and an absence of changes in cervical mucus. Progestin receptors mediate progesterone suppression of epileptiform activity in tetanized hippocampal slices in vitro. It is known that estrogen and progesterone have important effects on neuronal development and plasticity in widespread cerebral and brainstem regions, 20 through their capacity to regulate synthesis, release, and transport of neurotransmitters.

Neuroactive properties of reproductive steroids. Estradiol facilitates the release of neuropeptide Y to suppress hippocampus- dependent seizures. Focus on the alpha4 and delta subunits. Studies on the pattern of circulating steroids in the normal menstrual cycle.


Higher ratios of estrogen to progesterone may increase seizure frequency. They may be used in women with epilepsy also to prevent unwanted pregnancies. This article has been cited by other articles catamennial PMC. Clomiphene is an ovulatory stimulant that is used to treat infertility in women with oligoanovulation or anovulation.

Effects of progesterone Animal and humans studies 3839 clearly indicate that catamenial seizures are associated with a rapid decline in progesterone immediately before, during, and after menstruation. Estradiol and progesterone regulate neuronal structure and synaptic connectivity in adult as well as developing brain.

Beta-estradiol increases dentate gyrus inhibition in female rats via augmentation of hilar neuropeptide Y. Hormonal therapy Because progesterone has mainly been shown to have anticonvulsant effects, and because women with catamenial epilepsy under study often had inadequate luteal-phase or anovulatory cycles, it can be hypothesized that progesterone, progesterone metabolites, or estrogen antagonists may be used in conjunction with cqtamenial antiepileptic medications, to treat these patients.

In normally menstruating women, serum estradiol levels are typically present by day 10 of the menstrual cycle, and persist until ovulation.

The study population consisted of 52 inpatients with medically- refractory, complex, partial seizures. Simultaneous assays of progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and oestrone. Interestingly, the standard hormone replacement therapy which includes estrogen and a progestin can be postulated to have an effect on seizures in postmenopausal women with epilepsy that is more evident than that of oral contraceptives in cycling women with epilepsy, because reproductive hormone levels during menopause are low and unchanging.

Anticonvulsant medication may further aggravate mood swings, often pronounced prior to and during menstruation. Variation of seizure frequency with ovulatory status of menstrual cycles. The periovulatory catamenial exacerbation has been attributed to the midcycle surge of estrogen that is relatively unopposed by progesterone until early luteal phase. Excitability of the motor cortex during ovulatory and anovulatory cycles: Electrical activity during the estrous cycle of the rat: These same results have not been seen in laboratory counterparts.


The Falling Sickness 2nd Revised ed. Long-term anticonvulsant therapy leads to low bone mineral density — evidence for direct drug effects of phenytoin and carbamazepine on human osteoblast-like cells.

Catamenial Seizures – Epilepsy Ontario

Finally, postmenopausal women with epilepsy deserve a special attention about the choice of the antiepileptic drugs: To date, a rapid effect of progesterone has been reported in the hippocampus slice excitability, that was blocked by the PR antagonist RU Since at least the Greek times, there has been documented study of women with epilepsy and its correlation to the cayamenial cycle.

Luteal classification abnormal or inadequate luteal phase cycles, days 10 to 3 is associated with a twofold or greater increase in average daily seizure occurrence during the O, L and Epiepsy phases. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal catamenisl have been proposed. In contrast, there are several studies of chronic estrogen administration in females that show either anticonvulsant or no effect of estrogen on seizures.

In animal models, progesterone has been found to reduce neuronal firing and decrease spontaneous and induced epileptiform discharges. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, may be effectively used to treat catamenial seizures.

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review

Most of the reproductive hormones, including the estrogens, progesterone and testosterone, diminish initially perimenopausebecoming irregular, often showing wide and unpredictable fluctuations. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy.

A great majority of these therapies include progestogens naturally occurring or progestins synthetic progestogen. Redei E, Freeman EW.

There epilepsyy also studies that support protective effects of estrogen and that suggest that it may also be anticonvulsant under some circumstances.

Dana-Haeri J, Richens A.

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