Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration and Glycolysis ‹ OpenCurriculum
Nov 30, Explains the connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. So your cells can perform cellular respiration and make ATP. Apr 24, Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are essentially opposite chemical energy of bonds between atoms that power processes within cells. In Photosynthesis, plants use the sun's energy as light to transform carbon dioxide and water into glucose. In cellular respiration, glucose is.
How Photosynthesis Works In photosynthesis, CO2 and sunlight are used to produce glucose sugar and molecular oxygen O2. This reaction takes place through several steps in two stages: Sciencing Video Vault In the light phase, energy from light powers reactions that split water to release oxygen.
How Are Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis Almost Opposite Processes? | Sciencing
The chemical bonds in these compounds store the energy. Oxygen is a byproduct, and this phase of photosynthesis is the opposite of oxidative phosporylation of the cellular respiration process, discussed below, in which oxygen is consumed. The dark phase of photosynthesis is also known as the Calvin Cycle.
In this phase, which uses the products of the light phase, CO2 is used to make the sugar, glucose. Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the biochemical breakdown of a substrate through oxidation, wherein electrons are transferred from the substrate to an "electron acceptor," which can be any of a variety of compounds, or oxygen atoms.
If the substrate is a carbon- and oxygen-containing compound, such as glucose, carbon dioxide CO2 is produced through glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose. Glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell, breaks glucose down to pyruvate, a more "oxidized" compound. If enough oxygen is present, pyruvate moves into specialized organelles called mitochondria. There, it is broken down into acetate and CO2.
The CO2 is releasd. The acetate enters a reaction system known as the Krebs Cycle. This is opposite of one aspect of photosynthesis, the binding of carbons from CO2 together to make sugar. Respiration rate correlates with energy use, and that correlation reflects the link between oxygen and energy metabolism.
For this reason, the chemical reactions inside your cells that consume oxygen to produce usable energy are known as cellular respiration. Gills in this alpine newt larva, Triturus alpestris, bring blood close to an extensive surface area so that the newt can absorb dissolved oxygen gas from its watery habitat.
What happens in a campfire? Analyzing what happens when wood burns in a campfire is a good way to begin to understand cellular respiration. You know that a fire produces light and heat energy. Fire merely transforms the energy stored in its fuel — chemical energy — into light and heat.
Another way to describe this energy transformation is to say that burning releases the energy stored in fuel. As energy is transformed, so are the compounds that make up the fuel. In other words, burning is a chemical reaction.
We could write our understanding of this energy-releasing chemical reaction up to this point as: Was it movement or something in the air that promoted the chemical reaction? That something turns out to be oxygen. Oxygen gas is a reactant in the burning process. At this point, our equation is: If you collect the gas rising above a piece of burning wood in an inverted test tube, you will notice condensation - droplets appearing on the sides of the tube. Cobalt chloride paper will change from blue to pink, confirming that these droplets are water.
If you add bromothymol blue BTB to a second tube of collected gases, the blue solution will change to green or yellow Figure 5indicating the presence of carbon dioxide. Thus, carbon dioxide and water are products of burning wood. Bromothymol blue BTB changes from blue to green to yellow as carbon dioxide is added.
Thus, it is a good indicator for this product of burning or cellular respiration. If you guessed that these atoms make up the wood fuel — and nearlyall fuels we burn, from coal to propane to candle wax to gasoline hydrocarbons!
Overall, burning is the combining of oxygen with hydrogen and carbon atoms in a fuel combustion or oxidation to release the stored chemical energy as heat and light. Recall that we related breathing rate and oxygen intake to energy use. Burning consumes oxygen as it releases stored chemical energy, transforming it into light and heat.
Cellular respiration is actually a slow burn. However, releasing energy within cells does not produce light or intense heat. Cells run on chemical energy — specifically, the small amount temporarily stored in adenine triphosphate ATP molecules. Like oxygen, glucose is delivered by your blood to your cells. If ATP were delivered to cells, more than 60,,,, of these large molecules which contain relatively small amounts of energy would clog your capillaries each day.
A molecule of glucose contains a larger amount of chemical energy in a smaller package. The process of cellular respiration uses oxygen to help transfer the chemical energy from glucose to ATP, which can be used to do work in the cell. This chemical equation expresses what we have worked out: You can readily see that when the carbon atoms in glucose are combined with oxygen, they again form carbon dioxide.
And when the hydrogen atoms in glucose are oxidized, they form water, as in burning. You can detect these products of cellular respiration in your breath on a cold day as water condensation and in the lab BTB turns yellow when you blow into it through a straw.
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? | Socratic
Recall that the energy temporarily stored in ATP is released for use when the bond between the second and third phosphates is broken. Now you should be able to see that the source of energy for re-attaching the phosphate is the chemical energy in glucose!
Materials cycle and recycle, but energy gets used up and must be replaced. That is the key to understanding cellular respiration: How many ATP can be made by harnessing the energy in a single glucose molecule? Although this number varies under certain conditions, most cells can capture enough energy from one molecule of glucose to build 38 molecules of ATP. For the campfire, we indicated above the arrow that a necessary condition was a spark or match to start the reaction.
A spark or match would damage or destroy living tissue.
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
What necessary condition initiates the slow burn that is cellular respiration? More than 20 kinds of enzymes carry out cellular respiration! If you also recall that membranes within organelles often sequence enzymes for efficiency, as in chloroplasts for photosynthesis, you will not be surprised that a specific organelle, the mitochondrion Figure 6is also a necessary condition of cellular respiration - at least in eukaryotes.
Mitochondria are membranous organelles which sequence enzyme and electron carrier molecules to make cellular respiration highly efficient. Within each eukaryotic cell, the membranes of mitochondria sequence enzymes and electron carriers and compartmentalize ions so that cellular respiration proceeds efficiently.
Mitochondria, like chloroplasts, contain their own DNA and ribosomes and resemble certain bacteria. The endosymbiotic theory holds that mitochondria, too, were once independently living prokaryotes. Larger prokaryotes engulfed or enslaved these smaller aerobic cells, forming eukaryotic cells.
Many prokaryotes today can perform cellular respiration; perhaps they and mitochondria have common ancestors. Their expertise in generating ATP made mitochondria highly valued symbionts. Including these necessary conditions and balancing numbers of atoms on both sides of the arrow, our final equation for the overall process of cellular respiration is: Most of this process occurs within the mitochondria of the cell.
Carbon dioxide and water are waste products. This is similar to burning, in which oxygen breaks the carbon-hydrogen bonds in a fuel and releases their chemical energy as heat and light. Again, carbon dioxide and water are waste.