The study showed a weak positive relationship between the two .. researching the effect of the leader-follower relationship on the follower, the .. levels of absenteeism and poor work performances (Appelbaum, Bethune, &. The relationship between two leadership behaviors, initiating structure and consideration, leadership have similar effects on followers' overall levels of motivation call “Failure to Consider Human Needs” and “Poor Emotional Control. impact the relationship between leader behavior and follower outcomes. above a poor fit for the RMSEA and SRMR (Browne & Cudeck, ; Kline.
A practical managerial benefit was found in the insights presented by followers of leadership, which can possibly benefit leadership development and training needs, along with training and advancement of followers. Research findings potentially add to enhancing understanding of leadership development theory, synonymous with a safety-critical commercial setting. A critical insight into the 'unexplored' leadership behaviour qualities found within a safety-critical milieu is subsequently offered.
For example, information not shared with management, because of lack of trust, exhibited a limitation. Instances of punitive actions serve as evidence of a cultural barrier.
The above mentioned facts are attributed to leaders who exhibit egotistical, autocratic or domineering management styles. In contrast, it may be contended that within a highly regulated situation, it is anticipated that leadership behaviours should likely encourage follower actions, especially when compliance with strict rules is expected.
Consequently, leadership behaviours may well support and encourage such rule-based conduct. Incongruity in this case possibly exists, whereby current leadership behaviours may not necessarily contribute to compliance expectations and activities.
It is thus postulated that a thorough appreciation of prevailing leader qualities and performances can probably be found in encounters, observations and thoughts disclosed by followers. These reports may recognise and critically describe leadership behaviours that influence followership. Accordingly, an expressive follower-emphasised study was warranted so as to find and uncover noticeable leadership behaviours. This study was conducted within a safety-conscious, highly regulated and technology-driven industry aviation industrya safety-critical sector air navigation services and a specific safety setting, namely, an air traffic and navigation services provider.
Literature review When considering studies conducted by Avolio, Walumbwa and WeberWhitenerKellerman and Yuklit can be argued that leader qualities and behaviours can be examined from, amongst others, an organisational, leadership or a follower perspective. This reported misconception may advance an argument for the important role that followers play in the leader-follower relationship and organisational performance Boccialetti ; Chaleff ; Kellerman ; Kelley Leadership encompasses social interactions between leaders and followers.
Howell and Haii-Merenda explain that in leadership research, an affiliation of some sort between leader and follower is anticipated. Also, it is further proposed that the type and value of this relationship are critical when associating leader behaviour and follower response. Cropanzano and Mitchell found that within current management research, the social exchange theory has been afforded the most attention, especially in terms of workplace relationships.
Social exchange theory acknowledges that specific workplace antecedents lead to interpersonal connections - denoted as social exchange relationships Cropanzano et al. These inferred associations can also be explained as psychological contracts that refer to an individual's system of beliefs grounded in commitments articulated or implied Rousseau These views can be underlined with reference to the history of leadership theories as mapped by Baicher being: Emergence of trait model Great man theories.
Advent of neo-charismatic leadership model transactional and transformational. Because followers are exposed to a leader's style and actions, they are positioned to evaluate its effects on the leader-follower relationship Castro et al. The previously mentioned thus draws attention to a follower perspective. Identifying and exploring explicit follower views that are synonymous with both inspirational and unfavourable leadership behaviours depend on responses and testimonies from followers regarding these behaviours.
Hence, follower accounts, remarks, descriptions, incidents, clarifications, structured responses and perceptions served as data essential for this study. Leadership traits and behaviours highlight social interactions and emotional filters contained by leader-follower relationships. Moreover, leaders and followers individually and collectively delineate leadership and followership from diverse perspectives.
However, leadership is understood as a complex set of behaviours found within a specific setting that directs conduct. A leader's actions can inspire commitment or alienate followers Banutu-Gomez This study attempted to investigate reported experiences and expectations of followers with regard to leadership behaviour qualities within an ANSP. Both inspirational and discouraging leadership experiences and styles were probed. Because of this exclusive and limited focus on followers, a one-way causality in the research design was followed.
Followership has been hailed as an understudied subject in the academic literature and viewed as an underappreciated topic amongst practitioners Bjugstad et al. Although it has always been important, the study of followership has now become even more important and noteworthy with the advent of the information age as well as vast changes in the workplace Bjugstad et al. Followership schemas develop through socialisation and previous experiences with both leaders and other followers Hogg These are kept in memory and actuated when followers interact with leaders or other followers Hogg In terms of followership, the responses selected and employed by followers based on experiences and expectations of leadership behaviours and followership deserved investigation.
It was accepted that follower responses can provide content-specific and context-specific information that can be used for organisational purposes, such as leadership development initiatives.
Furthermore, acquiring insight into influences that shape followers' sentiments and beliefs can aid understanding of followers' cognitive frameworks and contemplative practices. The mentioned cognitive frameworks are based on the assumption that individuals reason by trying to envisage the possibilities compatible with what they know or believe Johnson-Laird Research emphasis As a point of departure, it was accepted that one's past experiences are likely to influence one's current and future views.
In lieu of this statement, it was recognised that follower experiences can be presented as personal, noteworthy or meaningful encounters, steered by reflective thoughts. As a result, leadership behaviours and qualities endured can influence followers' mental models and subsequently encourage critical appraisals of leadership.
Mental model data can consist of ephemeral discernments or thoughts, as well as long-term knowledge and beliefs, and such data are accessible by means of introspection Johnson-Laird ; Knauff et al.
As a result, follower expectations can be based on predictions and existing beliefs. Consequently, the researchers depended on follower insights to comprehend and appreciate followers' epistemological and ontological views of leadership limited to a specific context. It was contemplated that these insights could be valuable to appraise leadership training and development theory.
The research problem emerged as a result of the research gap in the academic literature on follower behaviour.
It is articulated as follows: It is imperative that it can now be done within a safety-critical commercial environment to support the realisation of this environment's goals and objectives. The research problem was addressed through the answering of the following research questions: How do followers within an ANSP describe leadership behaviour qualities in terms of the impact of these behaviour qualities? How do current leadership behaviour qualities enthuse followership within an ANSP?
How do current leadership behaviour qualities demotivate followership within an ANSP? How can follower experiences and expectations of leadership behaviours within an ANSP benefit leadership training and development needs analyses? The remainder of this article highlights the research design, analysis, findings and discussion.
The research design is presented inclusive of the research approach, paradigm and strategy and method. The research findings furnish the quantitative and qualitative insights as well as the triangulated results.
The Impact of Poor Leadership on Your Followers
Links with the research questions are offered in the discussion of the findings, including recommendations and suggestions for future research. Johnson and Onwuegbuzie add that a mixed method inquiry considers induction or discovery of patternsdeduction testing theories and hypotheses and abduction uncovering and presenting the best of a set of explanations for understanding one's results.
Mixed methods research integrates aspects from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms to deliver converging findings in the context of intricate research questions.
Yin adds that mixed methods research offers an option that incorporates the similarities and dissimilarities in qualitative and quantitative methods. Accordingly, the researchers introduced and followed a mixed methods research approach that facilitated and integrated both qualitative and quantitative investigations.
Research paradigm and strategy Following deliberation, an ethnographic research case study strategy was preferred. Because an ethnographic interview requires respectful listening Heylthe desired deeper descriptions were more viable.
The Impact of Poor Leadership on Your Followers
This necessitated listening for shifts in verbal variation, inconsistencies, topics avoided and hesitations. Furthermore, the contextual orientation needed to be understood from an organisational viewpoint. This decision thus required a context-specific research focus and boundary, which lead to the use of a supportive case study. It was accepted that a case is an empirical inquiry that studies a current phenomenon within its real-life context and is typically used when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not apparent Kohlbacher ; Walshe et al.
Yin adds that the typical need for case studies arises out of the aspiration to understand complex social phenomena. The case study method allowed the researchers to follow an all-inclusive and meaningful trail of actual events as experienced and presented by followers.
Research method Research setting Leadership suggested in this context comprised ANSP operations' organisational management levels. He or she is also formally responsible for the realisation of organisational goals through the group's performance.
Follower boundaries pertinent to this study excluded ANSP management as well as non-operations personnel. A total of 22 operational centres served as accessible research sites. Sampling Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill found that non-probability sampling is more commonly used when following a case study strategy. Qualitative data collection had to be collected from a subgroup of the accessible population comprising non-management operations employees employed by the ANSP.
A non-probability convenient sample was thus drawn. Fifteen followers were individually interviewed, and nine followers participated in the focus group interviews.
Sometimes we are called to leadership roles and sometimes we choose them. Other times circumstance may just create happenstance and you find yourself in a leadership role. As a leader we have responsibilities. Sometimes people choose to follow us, other times by authority, they would have to choose to not follow you. An example of the latter, for clarity, is you have worked someplace for ten years and your boss resigns. They hire a replacement who has authority and leadership over your position.
In this case you would have to resign to not be required to follow them. You would have to make that choice. I know I have written about this topic before and I guess it is a hot button for me. I see people not taking a proactive position on developing leadership skills or not feeling responsible for providing strong leadership.
All throughout the bible it talks about leadership. We have stories about shepherds and kings…judges and elders.
Bad Leader or Bad Follower?
We have many who did not feel equipped for the leadership that God called them to and he still commanded them step-up and lean on Him. Others volunteered knowing that God was behind them. Poor Leadership can have a Crippling Impact on Followers Society speaks often about the qualities of a strong leader and I have written about that mysel f. I want to talk about the impact of poor leadership on followers. Followers are directionless without strong leadership and will feel like failures even when they worked so hard to be a good follower.
Poor leadership can cause a follower to feel unimportant and uncared for. Poor leadership feels like betrayal. Her main reason for wanting to leave, as in the case of over 2. She has been with her company for over ten years. She feels her supervisor has poor people skills, gives cryptic directions, and does not support her efforts to advance in the company. Drevets, I expressed I was excited for her but unsure of what she thinks will be different about a new job.
Personal experience has shown me that eventually all jobs, like any relationship, become the same. The first few weeks of employment are always fresh and challenging.
After a about six months or so one will settle into a pretty predictable routine. I encouraged my friend to reflect on what she can do to ensure her needs are met at her current and prospective company so everyone is fulfilled and she can excel wherever she is employed.
Another consideration would be to work with the boss she has, not impose the expectations she holds for someone in a Leadership position. There is much emphasis placed on Leaders and their responsibility to inspire success.
There is a Leadership Theory that supports this obligation. Leader Member Exchange says that leadership is a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers.7 Curious Facts Your Appearance Says About You