On the Relationship between Culture and ELT | aruna vasantha - changethru.info
The Relationship Between Cultural Identity and Learning☆ Abstract. Researchers and education theorists have been trying to understand the relationship between the learning and the social world. ELT Journal, 56 (1) ( ), pp. The relationship between language and culture is deeply rooted. English language teaching has become a phenomenon in Southeast Asia, especially in. 3 On the Relationship between Culture and ELT Csilla Sárdi Abtract. In the literature, there are two widely spread and opposing views regarding the relationship.
Often meanings are lost because of cultural boundaries which do not allow such ideas to persist. As Porter argues, misunderstandings between language educators often evolve because of such differing cultural roots, ideologies, and cultural boundaries which limit expression. Language teachers must remember that people from different cultures learn things in different ways. For example, in China memorization is the most pronounced way to study a language which is very unlike western ideologies where the onus is placed on free speech as a tool for utilizing and remembering vocabulary and grammar sequences Hui When a teacher introduces language teaching materials, such as books or handouts, they must understand that these will be viewed differently by students depending on their cultural views Maley For instance, westerners see books as only pages which contain facts that are open to interpretation.
This view is very dissimilar to Chinese students who think that books are the personification of all wisdom, knowledge and truth Maley One should not only compare, but contrast the cultural differences in language usage. Visualizing and understanding the differences between the two will enable the student to correctly judge the appropriate uses and causation of language idiosyncrasies. For instance, I have found, during my teaching in Taiwan, that it is necessary to contrast the different language usages, especially grammatical and idiom use in their cultural contexts for the students to fully understand why certain things in English are said.
Thank you, and you? This question was very difficult to answer, until I used an example based in Chinese culture to explain it to them. One example of this usage: It was culturally and possibly morally significant to ask someone if they had eaten upon meeting. This showed care and consideration for those around you. Even now, people are more affluent but this piece of language remains constant and people still ask on meeting someone, if they have eaten.
The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching | changethru.info
If someone in a western society was greeted with this, they would think you are crazy or that it is none of your business. It has enabled them to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate circumstances of which to use English phrases and idioms that they have learnt. Valdes argues that not only similarities and contrasts in the native and target languages have been useful as teaching tools, but when the teacher understands cultural similarities and contrasts, and applies that knowledge to teaching practices, they too become advantageous learning tools.
Implications for language policy Creators of second language teaching policies must be sensitive to the local or indigenous languages not to make them seem inferior to the target language. English language teaching has become a phenomenon in Southeast Asia, especially in Taiwan. Most Taiwanese universities require an English placement test as an entry requirement Information for Foreigners Retrieved May 24, Foreigners non-native Taiwanese which are native English speaking students however, do not need to take a similar Chinese proficiency test, thus forwarding the ideology that the knowledge of English is superior to the Chinese counterpart and that to succeed in a globalized economy; one must be able to speak English Hu The implications for language policy makers are that policies must be formed which not only include but celebrate local languages.
Policies must not degrade other languages by placing them on a level of lower importance. Policies for language teaching must encompass and include cultural values from the societies from which the languages are derived as well as being taught. In other words, when making policies regarding language teaching, one must consider the cultural ideologies of all and every student, the teacher, as well as the culture in which the target language is being taught.
The American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages has expounded on the importance of combining the teaching of culture into the language curriculum to enhance understanding and acceptance of differences between people, cultures and ideologies Standards One example where as policy makers did not recognize the importance of culture is outlined by Kimin which the Korean government had consulted American ESL instructional guidelines which stated that for students to become competent in English they must speak English outside of the classroom.
The government on reviewing this policy requested that all Korean English language students use English outside of the classrooms to further enhance their language competency.
What they failed to consider is that while in America, English is taught as a second language and speaking English was quite acceptable in all locations, that in Korea, English is taught as a foreign language and the vast majority of the Korean population do not converse with each other in English.
Korean students speaking English outside of the classroom context were seen as show-offs. In a collectivistic culture, as is Korea, such displays of uniqueness are seen as a vice to be suppressed, not as a virtue Kim Thus policy makers must not rely on the cultural views and policies of others, but incorporate the cultural views of the students as well as considering the culture where the teaching is taking place. Language teachers need to be informed about various teaching interaction-based methodologies, manipulate them and develop their own teaching methods compatible with the educational context to foster interaction between students Kim When creating policies, one must consider the cultural meanings of teaching materials used.
The materials may have a far broader meaning or encompass far more or less than what one has considered. An example of this is when the school I worked for decided that I introduce a discussion topic on holidays with one of my classes. The school did not enlighten me as to the cultural significance of holidays or what the Chinese equivalent of the word entails. This problem, as described by Yuleis that people have pre-existing schemata or knowledge structure in their memory of what constitutes certain ideas; e.
The culturally based schemata that the students had for holidays were considerably different than that of my own. Their ideology of a holiday was any day that was special, possibly where one did not have to go to school, a weekend, a birthday, or any other major happening.
When I asked the students what their favourite holiday was, I received many replies, all of which were not what I was looking for. I proceeded to tell them that Christmas was a holiday. This however, was a bad example as Christmas is not a holiday in Taiwan. Finally, as this paper has shown, language and culture are intertwined to such an extent whereas one cannot survive without the other. It is impossible for one to teach language without teaching culture.
The implications for language teaching and policy making are therefore vast and far reaching. Brooks N Culture in the classroom. In JM Valdes ed Culture bound: Cambridge University Press, pp — Byram M Cultural studies in foreign language education. Englebert Character or Culture? The relative importance There problem is that such an approach to the promotion of such culture-related topics may of course vary according of English is likely to weaken cultural diversity and have to the aims of the courses.
Throughout the In the literature, one can find two widely spread and paper, a focus is given to EFL teaching and learning opposing views regarding the relationship between culture situations. These are the following: Instead, contexts familiar to the shared basis of social action. This system is acquired students should be used. The way we perceive and define the world around us Alptekin, second statement, as well as the first one, assumes that The question, then, is not whether to include cultural elements in the teaching of English.
This category includes the necessary to take into account relevant arguments and structure of different institutions from the national health counter arguments. The situation is different in the case of foreign language does not mean that there are no cultural differences learning in that the learners are already culturally and between them.
Then, which culture should be tied to the linguistically competent members of one community, and English language teaching? In a second language learning they aim to acquire the language code of another situation it may seem reasonable to focus on the culture of community Widdowson, The assumption that the target community in the given country.
But what children acquire their first language together with cultural should we do in a foreign language learning situation? That might be impossible. But how should from the culture to which it belongs. Indeed, many native we choose? Otherwise, the learners system Smith, It follows from this argument that will be exposed to an empty frame of language. Another argument for tying language and its culture together for teaching purposes relates to motivation.
On the other hand, it is not uncommon for many community can be more successful in second language students to become alienated from their own social and learning situations.
- The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching
Although other studies question the cultural settings as they become adjusted to the value application of this claim in foreign language learning system of the Anglo-American world. Looking at the question from another point of view, publishing language course books focusing on the target These problems with the cultural influence of English on culture is cost-effective because such a decision makes it other societies have lead to the suggestion that an possible for learners from different societies to make use of ideologically, politically and culturally neutral form of the same materials.
Also, for native speaker textbook English should be promoted in ELT. It is argued that writers it may be hard to develop materials focusing on English, as an international language utilised for cultures other than their own.
Another suggestion is English and its culture as inseparable. Firstly, the use of that, instead of focusing entirely on the culture of the target target culture elements in the process of ELT encourages a language, it is more beneficial to take a cross-cultural view, which equates English with the ways it is used by approach to EFL teaching.
According to Prodromou native speakers. Also, the model of dividing English speakers into three groups first language, A Survey second language and foreign language speakers stems from this approach. It must be seen, however, that this In the second part of this paper, the author reports on the model, although a very useful starting point, will not be the survey, which was designed to put to the test the two most helpful one for describing the use of English assumptions on the relationship between culture and ELT.
This is because English as More precisely, the purpose of the survey was to the second language and foreign language speakers investigate what students, the participants of the language outnumber the first language users, and it is logical to learning process in an EFL learning situation, think about assume that the global future of English will be determined the cultural content of their language courses and what by second and foreign language speakers Graddol, Secondly, English already represents many cultures.
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First Accordingly, the following research questions were asked: As an example, English? But the fact that the first language of most people in these countries is English elements of EFL courses? Language is taught at four levels in the institution: An effort The survey was carried out with the help of a was made to have students at each level to be included in questionnaire, which was divided into three sections see the survey.
The the help of their EFL teachers. The students completed the questionnaire at the English. This was done in order to find out whether beginning of their language classes. The data analysis did not aim at carrying out in-depth Of the 12 statements, numbers 2, 3, 6, 8, and 10 suggested statistical evaluation of data.
The other six attitudes regarding the cultural content of EFL instruction.
Most of as determined in the beginning of this paper: Of the respondents, 12 students lives and interests Also, there was an opportunity for were beginners, 9 students were at an elementary level, 15 the students to add their own preferences.
The statements students learned English in pre-intermediate, and 14 in were designed so that they formed three groups. The language of instruction in the institution is Section Two of the questionnaire aimed at answering our Hungarian but the students are required to learn two first research question What is the attitude of students foreign languages and pass two intermediate level State towards the status of English?
The results of this section Language Examinations by the end of their studies. To are summarised in Table 1.
The overall results indicate that the recognized usefulness understand that speaking English is almost compulsory of English for international and instrumental purposes when seeking a good job after graduation. It is important to note here that 4 direction. At the same time, all very powerful tool for success worldwide. This clearly of them indicate the desire to achieve native-like indicates that students are aware of the effects of proficiency. It is likely, that for these students passing a globalisation from the point of view of language use.
They language exam is only a means to an end rather than an can see clearly that at present English is the lingua franca aim in itself. This result indicates that, on proficiency in English. Fewer the belief that speaking a language well means to speak it like a than half of the respondents agree that it is not important to first language speaker does. A considerably lower number of enough to strive for a high level proficiency. This would receive a very high percent of agreement.
Another may be due to the fact that in Hungary, as well as in other indication of the results may be that many respondents do not European countries, EFL teaching has been carried out feel the need for native-like proficiency in order to according to British norms.
Some may also regard it as an unrealistic aim. This is probably, at least partly, due to the first language speakers accept them better if they speak English popularity of British English. Also, it may be due to the effects well. Here, a relatively high percentage of the respondents of the growing US cultural influence. UK or the USA.Using technology in ELT to integrate language and culture: ICC in Brazil and beyond
However, to find this out courses and their perceived needs are summarised in Table 2. This does not appear This result appears to be very important from the point of view in the table because there were only 4 responses in this of our research because it suggests that students view the category.