Modeling the relationship between the environment and human experiences - IOS Press
Since the earliest times, humans have needed to be sensitive to their The environment can influence peoples' behavior and motivation to act. of very rigorous research that links the physical environment of hospitals to health outcomes. The author proposes deeper psychological engagement in correlation with human behaviour, psychological well-being and society. The author highlights the. Modeling the relationship between the environment and human experiences. consequences and effects on the brain and human behaviour.
Van Veen et al. Before the test, Van Veen et al. The subjects were instructed to sit on the hard stool and the luxury chair to become accustomed to the environment. Usually humans are not aware of their surrounding environment. Dijksterhuis [ 30 ] stated that in general, humans are often unaware of the environmental characteristics that cause positive experiences. Apart from indices to characterize the human response, they found that noise had an important impact on health indicators, comfort and well-being.
For instance, flight crew members with swollen feet were more aware of their feet condition during noisy conditions. These results showed that the awareness of the environment was not always present. Vink [ 2 ] proposed a theory [ 2 ] that making the environmental experience highly comfortable does not automatically make the whole experience comfortable. Perhaps phases of discomfort or low comfort should be allowed to stimulate more awareness of high comfort or low discomfort levels: Of course, the discomfort should not be so high that the entire journey is a terrible experience.
The challenge is to find the ideal balance between comfort and discomfort experiences for the overall environmental experience. Bazley [ 32 ] wrote that humans experience the built environment on the physical, emotional, psychological and socio-cultural level.
The comfortable built interior environment model showed the overlapping space between a built interior environment and the human. This overlap is where the comfort elements reside Fig. Human interaction with built interior expectations and pre-experiences when accompanied by physical, psychological intellectual and emotional and socio-cultural are some of the influences of perceived comfort or discomfort in the interior.
The concept of time and change, shown in the outer ring, indicate that interior environments and people change through time. For example, an interior considered comfortable, e. Everything changes and evolves through the cycles of time. Built interiors perceived as comfortable have certainelements that provide comfort through time.
Therefore, time is an important factor to consider in the design process. In the Lewis et al. Studying the effect of the journey in the environment through time is essential as shown in the theory by Vink [ 2 ] and in the model by Bazley [ 32 ]. Hiemstra-van Mastrigt [ 33 ] showed the passenger felt more refreshed after walking throughout the airplane and Van Veen [ 12 ] showed that a small movement of the backrest and seat pan reduced discomfort over time.
In particular the study of long-term effects and the effects of the combinations of elements which provide comfort or discomfort need attention. Additionally, the effects of socio-cultural changes in the environment need more study. Bazley [ 32 ] showed that people were factors creating the most comfort, but also the most discomfort in the built interior environment. Predictions for future control room interior designed environments envision a human centric design focusing on comfortable, seamless collaborative workspaces [ 34—37 ].
However, this prediction is not job type, or workplace specific. In the future robots will likely take over the mundane functions of human society. The assimilation of artificial intelligence AI and robots into all environments is highly probable. It will be especially interesting if AI and robots take over the activities that create human discomfort.
This means new research for designing environments for these changes and studying the effects of these changed environments.
The challenge will be to design balanced environments that address the technological achievements but maintain the innate comfort of nature. In addition, the definition of task, workplace, and role of the human will change for humans as systems incorporate, drop ing automation.
Changes in materials, i.
In combination with the Internet these materials could be personalized, which would generate new fields of research. The modeling in time shown in Figs. Although several studies showed the experience of an interior environment fluctuated over time. Time is an important aspect to account for in the study of the effects of an interior environment on human beings. For the future, environmental design is certainly full of new opportunities and needs new research in the areas close to and far away from the body as new materials are introduced and artificial intelligence, robots, new materials and automated systems are assimilated and incorporated within the environment.
References Human Factors Ergonomics Society, The sweetness of discomfort: Designing the journey, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Methods of 3d data applications to inform design decisions for physical comfort. An estimation of the human head, neck, and back contour in an aircraft seat.
Interaction levels between comfort and discomfort in aircraft seats.
Are seat design processes of students similar to those of professionals? Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.
Comfort and pressure distribution in a human contour shaped aircraft seat developed with 3d scans of the human body. Functionalcustomization — Value creation by individual storage elements in the Car Interior. Distracting people from sources of discomfort in a simulated aircraft environment.
Attitudes towards personal and shared space during the flight. Posture variation in a car within the restrictions of the driving task.
Negotiated risk and resident autonomy: Frontline care staff perspectives on culture change in long term care in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Open Plan Offices as Sociotechnical Systems: What Matters and To Whom? Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas. The influence of activities and duration on comfort and discomfort development in time of aircraft passengers. Time dependent infrared thermographic evaluation of facemasks.
Adjustment of the Stolwijk model with regard of clothing, temperature sensation and skin temperature. Developing the discipline and profession. Effects of dynamic workstation Oxidesk on acceptance, physical activity, mental fitness and work performance.
Journal of Ergonomics ;5 1: Interface pressure data and the prediction of driver discomfort in road trials.
Without the intercepting effect of the vegetation and the tree roots binding the soil together, the soil is more likely to be washed away when it rains.
Loss of forests also has a significant impact on water supply. Tree roots reach deep into the soil and create spaces between the particles which increases soil permeability, allowing rainwater to soak in and replenish groundwater. Permeability means the ease with which water moves through soil or rock.
Fossil fuels have been the main energy source for global industrialisation, but because they are non-renewable, the quantity is ultimately limited and their use is not sustainable over the long term. Furthermore, burning of fossil fuels is the main cause of climate change. Climate change is discussed fully in later study sessions. There are several renewable alternatives to fossil fuels.
Wood used as a fuel is renewable in the sense that trees will regrow but there are other disadvantages such as deforestation, as you have read. In Ethiopia, windfarms are harnessing wind power to generate electricity Figure 1.
- Modeling the relationship between the environment and human experiences.
- Study Session 1 Human Interactions with the Environment
Ethiopia already has several hydropower stations and more are planned, including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, currently under construction.
Hydroelectric power is renewable because it makes use of the energy of flowing water but does not use up the water in the process. The direct use of water by people falls into three main categories: The relative proportions of these three categories vary in different parts of the world, but globally the sector using the most water is agriculture FAO, Figure 1.
Adapted from FAO, As well as direct use of water for human activities, water is also essential for the environment and to maintain biodiversity. Rivers, lakes and wetlands are important habitats for wildlife and need a minimum amount of water at all times. This becomes a problem when the demand for water for human activities exceeds the supply.
Water is not an endlessly renewable resource. In many parts of the world water demand is significantly above sustainable water supply. Many countries are already experiencing water stress or scarcity. These terms refer to the volume of water available relative to the use and demand for it, which is linked to the population served.
Countries which have less than m3 of water per person per year for all purposes are defined as water stressed United Nations, Water scarce countries have been defined as those with less than m3 of water per person per year.
These precise figures should be used with caution, however, because they do not recognise variations between countries and they hide the underlying causes of water scarcity. View larger image Figure 1. WWAP, Increasing water demand leads to unsustainable use of water resources. By the actions of the water cycle which you will learn about in Study Session 4 water supply is replenished, but taking excessive amounts of water from rivers and groundwater for domestic, industrial and agricultural use decreases the amount of water available for current and future generations.
Globally, water withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years due to population growth and to increased consumption per person. Many areas with plentiful supplies can sustain this use, but in some countries the future may bring water shortages unless demand is managed. If the trend for increased consumption continues, what could be the result for Ethiopia?
As you can see from Figure 1. In practice, for Ethiopia, the problem of water supply is not so much about the volume of water that is available. The problem is the infrastructure and investment required in delivering adequate quantities of safe water to all the people wherever they live. The availability of water and access to a safe supply varies considerably throughout the country and between rural and urban populations.
However, by the amount of water in the lake had dropped dramatically Figure 1. The use of domestic water and also water for irrigation especially for growing khat has increased significantly. Deforestation of the surrounding area, as land is cleared for farming and to meet an increasing need for wood, means that tree roots no longer hold the soil together and it is washed off the hillsides into the lake. This causes it to silt up and reduces the capacity of the lake.
Warming of the local climate may also have had an effect, increasing the rate of evaporation from the lake. Recently, lack of water in the lake has interrupted water supply to Harar, a nearby town of overpeople. What are the possible causes of the loss of water from Lake Alemaya? Increased use of water for domestic uses and for irrigation, deforestation leading to soil erosion and silt deposition in the lake, and possibly climate change.
For the WASH sector, the most important of these is our own bodily wastes. The impacts of open defecation and inadequate sanitation on human health and on the wider environment are profound. Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogens disease-causing agents in water and food that have been contaminated by the wastes from infected people. Preventing this connection between human wastes and the intake of contaminated water is the primary goal of WASH services. Industry, agriculture and energy production all generate wastes that can pollute air, water and soil.
Pollution means the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms.
For example, the leather industry produces large amounts of liquid wastes from the tanning process. These wastes contain organic materials such as fat from the hides and toxic poisonous chemicals including some human carcinogens cancer-causing agents. Another example is the release of so-called greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, which contribute to human-induced climate change.
Pollutants and pollution are the topics of Study Sessions 7 and 8 and climate change is described in more detail in Study Session 9. The green arrow indicates the waste generated as a product of this interaction. The red arrows indicate thenegative effect on both the environment and humans if the waste is not properly managed.
For instance, gadgets such as mobile phones, computers, televisions, microwave ovens and refrigerators have improved living standards for those people who can afford them. Technology can also improve the quality of our environment. For example, energy can be generated from renewable sources such as wind and solar power, which reduces our reliance on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, and also helps to reduce the release of polluting gases to the atmosphere.
Another example of the benefits from technology is the highly advanced eco-friendly wastewater treatment plant at the St. George Brewery in Addis Ababa. This plant recovers nutrients and waste water from the brewery that would otherwise be released into the environment. This type of technology can help to alleviate the problem of water shortage, prevent surface water pollution and protect the environment. Although technology has many positive impacts on people and the environment, it also has negative impacts, including the production of toxic waste from technological processes and electronic gadgets that are thrown away when they reach the end of their useful lives, as illustrated in Case Study 1.
This type of electronic waste is referred to as e-waste. E-wastes pose a huge challenge to the environment because they contain toxic substances such as cadmium and lead from batteries, which leach out and pollute rivers and groundwater. Leaching means the substances seep out or are washed out by rain into the soil below. Toxic substances may get into the soil, making it unfit for agriculture. Copper from wiring is valuable for recycling, but if wiring is burned, it produces very hazardous air pollution.
E-waste is becoming a major problem in many African countries, including Ethiopia, where the use of electrical equipment has increased sharply with the rising number of people on higher incomes. According to a United Nations University report, there are about tonnes of non-functioning computers, televisions, mobile phones and refrigerators in Ethiopia, mostly in the ten largest cities Manhart et al.
As there is no proper e-waste management system in Ethiopia, some e-wastes are disposed of together with other household wastes or dumped in an uncontrolled way that may cause huge environmental problems. All types of waste, including hazardous waste like heavy metals, are discarded here without any treatment, so toxins can seep into the soil and groundwater. Hazardous waste is any waste that contains material that is potentially harmful, for example, toxic, infectious, corrosive, explosive or flammable materials.
The DMF collects e-waste from governmental offices, dismantles them manually and sorts the different components to recover valuable metals Figure 1. However, agriculture also has significant negative impacts on our environment, including loss of biodiversity, pollution, climate change, soil erosion and the use of large amounts of water for irrigation.
Environment and Human Behavior | Applied Social Psychology (ASP)
What problems do you think are caused by using large amounts of water for agriculture? This reduces the amount of water available for other human purposes such as drinking and washing, and for sustaining wildlife and maintaining the levels of rivers and lakes.
Agricultural activities are also major sources of water pollution. Pesticides and fertilisers applied to crops may wash into rivers and leach into soil and groundwater.
These effects are discussed in Study Session 8. Poor farming practices, especially on steeply sloping land, are a significant cause of soil erosion in Ethiopia because rainfall washes away the soil particles downhill. Each year more than 1. This lost soil is not only a problem for agriculture, it silts up rivers and lakes. Soil erosion and loss of soil biodiversity causes a decline in soil fertility and this in turn reduces agricultural productivity.
Good agricultural practices, such as the use of terraces and diversion ditches, can help stop soil being lost from hillsides Figure 1. Agriculture also plays a role in causing climate change through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For example, fertilisers added to the soil release nitrous oxide and livestock production releases methane from the digestion process in cattle and the decomposition of manure.
The use of fossil fuels to power agricultural machines and burning trees to clear agricultural land both release carbon dioxide. In Study Session 9 you will learn more about climate change and the role of greenhouse gases in changing our climate.
Modeling the relationship between the environment and human experiences.
Humans not only affect the environment negatively — we can also contribute positively to sustaining it. When we install wastewater treatment plants, protect endangered species and replant forests, we have a positive impact on our environment. Sincehuge efforts have been made in Ethiopia to increase the forest coverage through government and NGO reforestation programmes. More than million trees were planted in alone AFP, In some parts of the country where the reforestation programme has been implemented effectively, the community has already started to benefit from environmental improvements, through effects such as creating more spring water, a higher water table, and less soil erosion and flooding Rinaudo, Humans and the environment have been interacting since humans first walked the Earth.
Humans change their environment both positively and negatively and the environment affects how humans live in many different ways. The main interactions between humans and our environment can be grouped into the use of resources and the production of wastes. Resources can be classified as renewable e.
Modeling the relationship between the environment and human experiences
Humans are extracting increasing quantities of natural resources from the Earth which is causing problems of over-exploitation, for example through overfishing and deforestation. Water is used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes.
Human activities produce many different types of waste which can pollute the environment. One example is e-waste from discarded electronic gadgets such as mobile phones contain many toxic substances that can pollute groundwater, soil and air unless their disposal is well-managed. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Ethiopia and has a significant impact on the use of resources, especially water and soil.