While philosophy of education is often considered an applied discipline, To Hobbes, the state of nature was competitive and dangerous, so only rule and limitations of philosophy, and about the appropriate relationship. of the epistemic state of understanding as opposed to knowledge. .. Explores the link between the concept of learning and the concept of teaching. Scheffler. Greene: Epistemology and Educational Research when possible, the ating discourse in terms of its relation to a transhistorical truth, is generally understood to have reached its end. . anism of church and state. The human mind, more.
Some students understood what they were learning, but many did not and hence could not be said to have actually learnt anything, even though a good number of them passed the examinations in the end. Examinations were like so many other obstacles that must be overcome on the way to a decent job and a nice salary. Generally speaking, the more examinations one cleared and the better one was at clearing them, the more decent one's job and the nicer one's salary would be.
For a while, this worked. Then, employers started to complain that local school graduates did not seem to be very competent critical thinkers and problem solvers.
This was in spite of the many A's that students were scoring in the various examinations.
They seemed unable to think for themselves and appeared to lack initiative. In short, they apparently lacked the basic process skills needed to perform the jobs they had been hired to do. In the end, many employers had to devote much time and resources to train the fresh school graduates they had hired so that these young people could do the jobs they were supposedly qualified to do. The main reason for this situation was that, although subject knowledge and information was explicitly taught, the skills and processes necessary for acquiring the knowledge and information were not.
Education was conceived as the transmission of knowledge from those who knew to those who did not, and knowledge was thought of as fixed—unambiguous, unequivocal and unmysterious—and non-overlapping between disciplines. Students were supposed to acquire knowledge by stocking their minds with information.
As a result, genuine understanding, if it occurred at all, was more often than not an incidental outcome. Knowledge and information can become obsolete or irrelevant after a time, and it was becoming so faster with the increasingly rapid pace of technological development towards the end of the twentieth century.
Consequently, many fresh school graduates discovered that the knowledge and information they had learnt in school was not always applicable to the jobs they had been hired to do. To make matters worse, they had not learnt how to deal with these rapid changes. This meant that the learning curve was usually very steep at the initial stages of their working life. Had they been explicitly taught the skills and processes needed for acquiring knowledge and information in various disciplines when in school, they would have had a much easier time.
Unfortunately, until recent years, this has not been the case. Things have improved in the last five years or so. There is now, across the board, greater emphasis on the teaching and learning of process skills critical thinking, creative thinking, writing, oral presentation, data analysis, data collection, etc.
Epistemology and Education
This development has occurred elsewhere too, for example, in the United StatesAustralia and New Zealand. Lipman Lipman et al.
Courses in schools generally lacked relevance, interest and meaning. Subjects were treated as completely unrelated to one another and therefore taught as discrete entities, even though in reality existing knowledge in various fields was increasingly being integrated to create new forms of knowledge. There was little attempt, if any, to engage students in critical thought about what they were learning.
As a result, American students became more and more disaffected. This prompted a movement to introduce critical thinking skills into the school curriculum. Since the mids, education researchers have developed and refined various programmes and methods specifically designed to ensure that learning takes place through active critical thought e.
These programmes and methods have been gaining popularity over the last ten years, not just in the United States but also in Australia, New Zealand and, now, Singapore. Many teachers remain unsure about how exactly to teach the various process skills in the classroom or why they should do so. The primary aim of this chapter is to show how a basic understanding of epistemology, the branch of philosophy that examines the nature of knowledge, the ways in which we acquire knowledge, and the value of knowledge, can help educators see why the teaching and learning of the skills and processes required for knowledge construction is crucial.
Key Issues and Ideas in Epistemology Epistemology deals with three key issues: What are the best and most secure ways of acquiring knowledge? What is the value of knowledge? The first issue concerns the nature of knowledge. Epistemologists are interested to find out what exactly it is to know that something is the case. This quest is usually characterised as the task of specifying a set of conditions that are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for a person to have knowledge.
To say that these conditions are individually necessary for having knowledge means one must satisfy all the conditions in order to count as knowing something.
If one fails to satisfy even one of these conditions, then one does not have knowledge. To say that these conditions are jointly sufficient for knowing something means that satisfying them all will guarantee that one has knowledge. The traditional account of knowledge is based on the following specifications: K S knows that P if and only if a S believes that P, S's belief that P is justified, and P is true, where S stands for the knower and P for the proposition or statement that describes what the knower knows.
This account of knowledge is often traced back to Plato's Theaetetus and Meno. There are cases where a person has satisfied all the three conditions in K but nevertheless fails to have knowledge, because there is some element of luck involved in the way the first and third conditions are met.
Yet, according to Kthe person counts as having knowledge.
Let us illustrate the problem with an example. Suppose that one morning I ask my colleague Kevin to give me a lift home after work and he agrees.
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I thus have a very good reason to believe that I'll be getting a lift home from Kevin that day. However, unbeknownst to me, Kevin gets into an accident while driving out for lunch that day. Although he is unhurt, his car needs major repairs. Kevin's mechanic happens to be his uncle, who, quite by chance, has a spare truck in the workshop that day.
He loans Kevin the truck. At the end of the day, Kevin gives me a lift home in his uncle's truck. Now suppose that someone asks me during lunch how I'll be getting home that day, and I tell him what I believe, namely, that I'll be getting a lift from Kevin. Well, my belief is true. It is also justified, because Kevin has told me earlier that he will be giving me a lift home that day.
Effect of Epistemology on Education
This is very good evidence for my belief. But do I know that Kevin will be giving me a lift home that day? No, because there is an element of luck involved in Kevin still being able to give me a lift home that day. Furthermore, if I had known about Kevin's accident, I would not have continued to believe that he would be giving me a lift home that day. Yet, according to Kbecause my belief is both true and justified, I do know that Kevin will be giving me a lift home that day.
So, K must be wrong. This problem was first made famous by Edmund Gettier and has become known as the Gettier problem. Many epistemologists have attempted to solve this problem. These various attempts all have one aim, which is to specify the way in which one's justification for believing a true proposition rules out the possibility that one has arrived at the true belief by chance.
They focus, in the first place, on the scope and limits of human knowledge. Some subjects, like the nature of the physical world, appear to lie within the realm of knowledge, but others, like the existence of God although this example may be controversialseem to belong to the domain of opinion or faith. Here epistemologists explore whether there is a principled way of separating the realm of knowledge from other domains.
Secondly, they ask whether there are important divisions within the realm of knowledge. Pure mathematics is often given as an example of the latter sort of knowledge. Other epistemologists, however, disagree that any such distinction exists.
Is there just one way of acquiring knowledge, or are there several, depending on the sort of knowledge in question? The need for knowledge of Yahweh to be taught by a third party is set to disappear in the promise of Jer.
Such knowledge will be given to all in the edge of the new covenant when spirit of God will indwell each believer.
This does not mean that the need for teachers will disappear altogether, only that individual believer will not be entirely dependent on others for their awareness of God. David promises to teach sinners the way of the Lord in Ps. Other contexts speak about teaching from a negative perspective. Foundation of education is the inquiry into the ideas that dominate educational theory and Policy. The current questions are what it is worthwhile or necessary to teach, and what the best ways of doing it are.
Different views about human nature will influence answers to both questions Blackburn, Now, if the teachers ask their students to think when using these methods and achieve desired and new results by innovation and creativity, they have both increased and improved the spirit of innovation in their students and will cause nurturing and breeding of the intellect, reflection and thinking through their teaching methods in such a manner, cause strengthening the reflection, thinking and intellection in the students by that applying techniques.
Some of the teaching methods can be more effective in this field, such as question and answer, discussion and group discussion, and the methods based on problem solving. If the teachers use a combination of different teaching methods, and choose each of them considering the related goals and the subject matter, then their students will be more successful.
It is sometimes necessary for the teacher to use lecture teaching method to create a spiritual effect in his class, and use the needed techniques to make it more effective wherever necessary. Such a student, if studies literature, history, arts, and other branches of the science, he will surely be able to better understanding of the real concepts of every science and receive nicer and more subtle points.
Imam Ali considers the basis of instruction and teaching methods as thinking and nurturing of thought. He advocates of those methods, which awaken the spirit of reflection which, and intellection in the individual such as a thinking and reflection which can create insight, perspicacity and wisdom in the persons Ghorar-al-Hekam that is a deep and comprehensive knowledge, which cause humans to see the being as it is, and do the works, as it deserves.
Therefore, Imam Ali even says that a religion which there is no deep-insight and thinking in it, will be of no virtue and utilization Al Behar, vol. The recommendation of Imam Ali to his son — Imam Hasan- is that: Thus, it is deducted that Imam Ali takes emphasis on educational climate which stimulates thinking Nahj-al-Balaghah, letter 53 and he recommends man to try to achieve the truth with deep — insight and thinking comprehensively: In spite of this, he recommended hesitation and consideration in issuing ordainments in decisions: Therefore, approach them for action at the time when they are passionate and when they are in a mood for advancing, because if hearts are forced to do things they will be blinded Nahj-al-Balaghah, Hakmat Negotiation and discussion cause continuation of knowledge: Therefore, one should have frequent companionship and society with the knowledgeable and the erudite and the wise: Therefore, if a person who hides his knowledge, it is as if he did not know it Behar, vol.
Thus, Imam Ali emphasizes the people to learn the knowledge of those who know, and to teach from their knowledge to those who do not know Ghorar-al-Hekam. He considers learning knowledge and science as virtual and request humans turn to acquiring knowledge Behar, vol. Therefore, Imam Ali recommends the development and generalization of the knowledge Behar, vol. The learner must think about that which he learns or is instructed so that his knowledge becomes firm and understands that which he has not yet understood Ghorar-al-Hekam.
On this basis, one should never say that which he does not know: And it is equally claimed that it would be wrong to promote a particular form of life as though, despite the plurality of views, one particular way of life was the correct one.
That would be to indoctrinate — the very antithesis of education. Hence, indoctrination would seem to apply when the doctrines or the content of what one is teaching are controversial — when there is no public agreement over what is true or false, valid or invalid.
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Thus, religious truths, in this respect, are rather like political or moral or aesthetic truths. The same arguments against nurturing religious beliefs and attitudes would be similar to those which would be levelled against teaching a particular moral code or attitude, or teaching people how to appreciate literature, or what sort of political stance one should adopt, or a particular interpretation in history of past events.
But that indeed would be drastic. Not to nurture beliefs which are in any way controversial would leave the schools bereft of almost anything but mathematics and science.Epistemology # Definition and introduction in urdu by the education forum...
Therefore, those who make accusations of introduction retreat from an emphasis upon the content of teaching to the method of teaching — of teaching so as to demonstrate the truth of what is taught, not tolerating deviation from the accepted view. There is this belief in Christianity that there can be a relationship between this religion and educational thinking Peterson, In Christianity, according to the situation, teachers can use various and quite different teaching methods Peterson, ; McMahon, Professional teachers in churches, Para church organizations, and schools do not usually adopt any one-method completely.
They usually pick and choose elements from different approaches that fit their teaching style and use them in combination. Teachers may also adopt one method for one set of objectives or subject matter and an entirely different approach for another Pearl, cited in Ratcliff, The list of strategies in both the religious and secular domain include role playing, moral dilemma discussions, dramatizations, the use of filmstrips, movies, and other audio-visuals, values clarification exercises, cross-age teaching and counseling, interviewing, and diary keeping.
Religious and secular educators have the list of strategies in common. The difference lies in the use made of all the strategies Barber, Taking up this multidimensional analysis of religion, we may argue that formative religious education must also ensure that it is developing the whole range of learning outcomes appropriate to being religious.
Christianity is best learned both affectively and cognitively.