Who is Allah? Understanding God in Islam
The relationship between human beings and the earth is increasingly complicated and urgent. Every day there The Earth is green and beautiful, and Allah has appointed you his stewards over it. Back to Religion, science and the environment index. Activity The Divine Book revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. Allah's. changethru.info Islam portal · v · t · e. Muslim scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on science within the context of . a new theology that can establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science. who believed that empirical science had reached the same conclusions that prophets had been. english/ Hadith & Its Science/ This Hadith “Among Allah's servants are people who are neither prophets nor martyrs, but whom the that must be fulfilled so that the relationship remains pure and free of base undercurrents.
Salam highlights, in particular, the work of Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni as the pioneers of empiricism who introduced the experimental approach, breaking way from Aristotle's influence, and thus giving birth to modern science. Salam differentiated between metaphysics and physics, and advised against empirically probing certain matters on which "physics is silent and will remain so," such as the doctrine of "creation from nothing" which in Salam's view is outside the limits of science and thus "gives way" to religious considerations.
Science is the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Scientists maintain that scientific investigation needs to adhere to the scientific methoda process for evaluating empirical knowledge that explains observable events without recourse to supernatural notions.
Part Relationship between Allah and His Creation | Light Within Me | changethru.info
In Islam, nature is not seen as something separate but as an integral part of a holistic outlook on God, humanity, the world and the cosmos. These links imply a sacred aspect to Muslims' pursuit of scientific knowledge, as nature itself is viewed in the Quran as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine.
It is also known as Arabic science since the majority of texts during this period were written in Arabicthe lingua franca of Islamic civilization. Despite these terms, not all scientists during this period were Muslim or Arabas there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists most notably Persiansas well as some non-Muslim scientists, who contributed to scientific studies in the Muslim world.
A number of modern scholars such as Fielding H. GarrisonSultan Bashir MahmoodHossein Nasr consider modern science and the scientific method to have been greatly inspired by Muslim scientists who introduced a modern empiricalexperimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry. This culminated in the work of Ibn al-Nafis —who discovered the pulmonary circulation in and used his discovery as evidence for the orthodox Islamic doctrine of bodily resurrection.
At least some scholars blame this on the "rise of a clerical faction which froze this same science and withered its progress. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. March At the beginning of the nineteenth century, modern science arrived in the Muslim world but it was not the science itself that affected Muslim scholars.
Rather, it "was the transfer of various philosophical currents entangled with science that had a profound effect on the minds of Muslim scientists and intellectuals.
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Schools like Positivism and Darwinism penetrated the Muslim world and dominated its academic circles and had a noticeable impact on some Islamic theological doctrines. Some rejected modern science as corrupt foreign thought, considering it incompatible with Islamic teachings, and in their view, the only remedy for the stagnancy of Islamic societies would be the strict following of Islamic teachings.
In their view, the only remedy for the stagnation of Muslim societies would be the mastery of modern science and the replacement of the religious worldview by the scientific worldview.
The majority of faithful Muslim scientists tried to adapt Islam to the findings of modern science; they can be categorized in the following subgroups: Their motivation was to encourage Muslim societies to acquire modern knowledge and to safeguard their societies from the criticism of Orientalists and Muslim intellectuals. In their view, one must try to construct a new theology that can establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science.
The Indian scholar, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, sought a theology of nature through which one could re-interpret the basic principles of Islam in the light of modern science.
The revelation had only the privilege of prophecy. Finally, some Muslim philosophers separated the findings of modern science from its philosophical attachments. Thus, while they praised the attempts of Western scientists for the discovery of the secrets of nature, they warned against various empiricist and materialistic interpretations of scientific findings. Scientific knowledge can reveal certain aspects of the physical world, but it should not be identified with the alpha and omega of knowledge.
Rather, it has to be integrated into a metaphysical framework—consistent with the Muslim worldview—in which higher levels of knowledge are recognized and the role of science in bringing us closer to God is fulfilled. In chapter al-Ambiyaa we find: Each one is traveling in an orbit with its own motion. They are well known for the moon, but less widely known for the sun. It is not until man landed on the moon and observed the earth spinning on its axis, that the dark half of the globe appeared to wind itself around the light and the light half appeared to wind itself around the dark.
Modern astronomy confirms that the solar system is indeed moving in space at a rate of 12 miles per second towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules alpha lyrae whose exact location has been precisely calculated. Astronomers have even give it a name, the solar apex.
The regular movement of the galactic light towards the red section of the spectrum is explained by the distancing of one galaxy from another. Thus, the size of the universe appears to be progressively increasing. You will not penetrate them except with authority. They deal, not only with the physical phenomena observed here on earth, but also with details concerning the living organisms that inhabit it. At this point, we must ask ourselves the following question: How could an uneducated man in the middle of the desert accurately tackle so many and such varied subjects at a time when mythology and superstition reigned supreme?
How could he so skillfully avoid every belief that was proven to be totally inaccurate many centuries later? Water Cycle The verses dealing with the earthly systems are a case in point.
This is a topic which is well known today. But if we consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear to be based more on myth and philosophical speculation than on observed fact, even though useful practical knowledge on soil irrigation was current at that period. Let us examine, for example, the following verse in chapter az-Zumar: It was not until the sixteenth century, with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water cycle.
Prior to this, people believed that the waters of the oceans, under the effect of winds, were thrust towards the interior of the continents. In the seventeenth century, great thinkers such as Descartes still believed in this myth.
The Quran and Modern Science
Today, we know that it is the infiltration of rain water into the ground that is responsible for this. Mountains In geology, modern science has recently discovered the phenomenon of folding which formed the mountain ranges. It has also been discovered that the stability of mountains is linked to the phenomenon of folding.
Here, as in the case of all the other topics presented, the objective observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction to modern knowledge. We should really devote much more time to this subject, but, due to the limited scope of this presentation, I can only give a few examples.
It is for this reason that scientists find some of their interpretations unacceptable. There are also other verses whose obvious meanings are easily understood, but which conceal scientific meanings which are startling, to say the least.
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This is the case of a verse in chapter al-Ambiyaa, a part of which has already been quoted: Will they still not believe? Botany Progress in botany at the time of Muhammad S was not advanced enough in any country for scientists to know that plants have both male and female parts. Nevertheless, we may read the following in the chapter Taa Haa: To understand this verse, it must first be known that chemical reactions occur between food and enzymes in the mouth, the stomach and the intestines releasing nutrients in molecular form which are then absorbed into the circulatory system through countless microscopic projections of the intestinal wall called villi.
Blood in the circulatory system then transports the nutrients to all the organs of the body, among which are the milk-producing mammary glands. Today it is not difficult to see why! This verse is taken from the chapter an-Nahl: I give you drink from their insides, coming from a conjunction between the digested contents of the intestines and the blood, milk pure and pleasant for those who drink it.
The initial event which sets the whole process in motion is the conjunction of the contents of the intestine and blood at the level of the intestinal wall itself. This very precise concept is the result of the discoveries made in the chemistry and physiology of the digestive system over one thousand years after the time of Prophet Muhammad S.
It was impossible for a human being living in the early seventh century to have accurately expressed such ideas. There is nothing to indicate that people in the Middle-East and Arabia knew anything more about this subject than people living in Europe or anywhere else.
Your books on sex-education are a bit late on the scene! Fertilization Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the complexity of the semen and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is required to ensure fertilization.
The verse correctly implies that fertilization is performed by only a very small volume of liquid. On the other hand, mingled fluids amshaaj has been understood by early commentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges. Modern authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is made up of various components. This is the meaning of the following verse in chapter as-Sajdah: In whatever way it is translated, it refers to part of a whole.
Under normal conditions, only one single cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man during sexual intercourse will actually penetrate the ovule. Implantation Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to lodge itself inside the uterus.
Implantation is a result of the development of villosities, which, like roots in the soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the egg literally cling to the womb. It is a derivative meaning which is not as appropriate in this context. Embryo The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only briefly described, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referring to it correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth.
It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are then covered with muscle. The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportion and others out of proportion with what is later to become the individual.
This is the obvious meaning of a verse in the chapter al-Hajj, which reads as follows: Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses and internal organs in the chapter as-Sajdah: Throughout the Middle Ages there were a variety of beliefs about human development based on myths and speculations which continued for several centuries after the period. At that time, when science had benefited greatly from the invention of the microscope, people were still arguing about the respective roles of the egg and spermatozoon.
Buffon, the great naturalist, was one of those in favor of the egg theory. Creation We have already come across some of the contradictions between scripture and science regarding the creation of the universe. The narration seems to have been conceived as the theme of a sermon designed to exhort people to observe the Sabbath. The narration was constructed with a definite end in view, and as Father de Vaux a former head of the Biblical School of Jerusalem has noted, this end was essentially legalist in character.
They are both taken from Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch or Torah. Moses is supposed to have been its author, but the text we have today has undergone many changes. The sacerdotal narration of Genesis is famous for its whimsical genealogies, that go back to Adam, and which nobody takes very seriously. Nevertheless, such Gospel authors as Matthew and Luke have reproduced them, more or less word-for-word, in their genealogies of Jesus.
Matthew goes back as far as Abraham, and Luke to Adam. These writings are scientifically unacceptable, because they set a date for the age of the world and the time humans appeared on Earth, which most definitely contradicts what modern science has firmly established.
On the other hand, the Biblical narration of primordial waters is hardly, nor is the creation of light on the first day before the creation of the stars which produce this light; the existence of an evening and a morning before the creation of the earth; the creation of the earth on the third day before that of the sun on the fourth; the appearance of beasts of the earth on the sixth day after the appearance of the birds of the air on the fifth day, although the former came first.
All these statements are the result of beliefs prevalent at the time this text was written and do not have any other meaning. Age of the Earth As for the Biblical genealogies which form the basis of the Jewish calendar and assert that today the world is years old, these are hardly admissible either. Our solar system may well be four and a quarter billion years old, and the appearance of human beings on earth, as we know him today, may be estimated in tens of thousands of years, if not more.
In actual fact, the Biblical narration is a fusion of two descriptions in which events are related differently. The Bible speaks of a universal flood and places it roughly years before Abraham. According to what we know of Abraham, this would imply a universal cataclysm around the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC This story would be untenable, in view of presently available historical data.
How can we accept the idea that, in the twenty-first or twenty-second century BC, all civilization was wiped off the face of the earth by a universal cataclysm, when we know that this period corresponds, for example, to the one preceding the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, at roughly the date of the first Intermediary period before the eleventh dynasty? It is historically unacceptable to maintain that, at this time, humanity was totally wiped out.